The Official Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter Vol 28- No 3 - 2018
Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter

     Derek Shaffer and the beautiful banner he designed to promote this year's Mess & Muster (design also used for posters and the flyer inserted in this issue). Derek generously donated his artwork for this project in memory of Pat Hall, his father-in-law. Fort Larned Old Guard extends special thanks for his donation. Plans are to auction the banner at the conclusion of Mess & Muster presentation on April 28. Derek was asked to write a few words for OUTPOST, printed below.

     I attended Wichita State University for a Fine Arts Degree in Graphic Design. After graduating in 1992, I began my career at a local pre-press company. This is where I first meet Rex Abrahams; he was the one who hired me at that time.

     Around eight years later, I transitioned into a sales position and have done Commercial Print Sales since. I have always continued to do freelance design work.

     When Rex approached me about doing design work for an event at Fort Larned, I was honored and happy to do so in memory of Pat Hall, my late father-in-law. Pat was a former board member of the Old Guard and in past years had donated items from his personal collection to Fort Larned.

     Pat truly loved history, collecting historic artifacts, visiting museums, and talking to anyone who shared in his passion. His history lessons are missed by many, including my mother-in-law Maurine, my wife Amanda, our 13-year-old son Blake Patrick, and myself. I hope you have a great day for Mess & Muster with a program Pat Hall would have enjoyed, Weapons and Hunting on the Great Plains.

"Guns That Talk To Us--Historic Indian Firearms Of The Little Bighorn"
Wendell Grangaard
by Rex Abrahams

     Few places in the American West conjure up more discussion and passion than The Little Bighorn. Few historical locations have more written about them. Custer, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse. It was the Plains Indians' piece de resistance. The Old Guard is proud to bring to Fort Larned the opportunity to learn about a key component of the encounter. Actual firearms used at the battle as documented by Wendell Grangaard in his amazing book, Documenting the Weapons Used at the Little Bighorn.

     Wendell's knowledge was a lifetime in the making. Befriending Lakota historian Benjamin Black Elk (son of Nicholas Black Elk and Grandson of Black Elk--John G. Neilhardt's Black Elk Speaks) Wendell learned the secret language of Togia. Togia was used by the Sioux and other American Indian tribes to communicate and mark their belongings.

     Wendell's understanding of this hidden communication enabled him to determine the ownership of many old guns. What was once thought of as "pretty Indian tacks" actually has true meaning. Several of these historic firearms used at the Battle of the Little Bighorn will be on display at Fort Larned. Wendell has documented their ownership and traced their location during the fight. Wendell promises to bring one that has very special meaning. You do not want to miss this one! Mark April 28, 2018, on your calendar and relive history so close you can almost touch it.

Fort Larned Old Guard Chair's Column
by Janet Armstead

     Are you tired of going to WalXXXX or TarXXXX?? Would you like to help Fort Larned without leaving your home?? Here's how you can do it!

     You can help Fort Larned by purchasing your paper towels and cleansers and much more needed household items, as well as books and many other items, from Amazon Smile! Here's how:

Steps to add an Amazon Smile account:
     1. Open internet browser. (Google, Chrome, Safari, etc).
     2. Type in: www.smile.amazon.com
     3. Sign into your current Amazon account (or create one).
     4. The next screen allows you to "select a charity, or pick your own."
     5. Type in "Fort Larned." There are several choices associated with Fort Larned.
     6. Choose Fort Larned Old Guard and click "select." Then place your order for paper towels, t.p., tissues, cleaning supplies, whatever.

     That's all there is to it! Now every time you shop online, go to Smile.Amazon. Every time you shop, a percentage of your purchase goes to Fort Larned Old Guard without doing anything else! Amazon deposits the quarterly donations directly to Fort Larned Old Guard bank account.

     Obviously, not a lot of money goes to the Old Guard, but a little from each of us will add up to a nice sum. And you have saved the gas and time you would spend traveling to your nearest store-your order will be delivered to your door!

     Annual Mess and Muster is fast approaching (April 28). Have you seen the beautiful posters and flyers advertisins the event? These great posters were designed by Derek Shaffer and produced by Fort Larned Old Guard's own Rex Abrahams at Rand Graphics in Wichita. Derek designed these to honor his father-in-law, Pat Hall, who loved Fort Larned. Read about this event throughout this issue. It will be an exciting day! Please plan on joining us.

Superintendent's Corner
by Betty Boyko

     It has been a year of accomplishments at Fort Larned and there is still much to be done in 2018.

     Our newly-designed brochure was delivered to the park in November. It's larger than the previous one, with lots of colorful imagery, including an artist's rendering of an aerial view of the fort as it might have looked on a busy day in 1868. It still has essential historic information for the visitors. Pick one up the next time you're at the fort.

     We finished out the year with another successful Christmas Past celebration. Approximately 50 families came out to get their picture taken with Santa, and all the visitors enjoyed the 1860s food and the Christmas caroling. This year we added a short concert from some Larned High School band members and a debate on whether Santa should move his workshop to Florida. Although the student supporting the move did an exemplary job of laying out her argument, the audience agreed he should stay at the North Pole.

     We've received funding to create a short video on the history of the Buffalo Soldiers. The film will be about 4-6 minutes long and will connect the Fort Larned Buffalo Soldier story to the struggle for equality and fair treatment that all African-American service men and women have strived for over the years. Filming is set to begin in February. Not only will this video be available to visitors to the fort, it can also be shared through a variety of online mediums, as well as made available to teachers to include in their classroom curriculum on Civil Rights.

     The new Visitor Center exhibits project continues to progress. The design portion is almost complete and fabrication should begin soon. The installation is scheduled to take place in the spring of 2019. There will be some changes in the Visitor Center this spring as we get ready for the new exhibits. During the week of March 12th, all the artifacts that will be used in the new exhibits will be packed and moved to the Western Archeological Center for conservation. This will not have a big impact on the displays, though, since not all the items currently on display will be reused in the new exhibits. Those that aren't being reused will remain on display, and the park has similar artifacts in our collection that can replace those artifacts being removed. The new exhibit will require some remodeling of the museum space, the auditorium, and the bookstore area, and those modifications will also start in March.

     If you've been to the park recently you may have noticed a major landscape and conservation project taking place around the new parking lot. This is a joint project between the Federal Highway Administration and the National Park Service and is actually the final phase of the bridge and parking lot project. Part of this project was a reorganization of the Butterfly Garden. Besides replacing all the nonnative plants with native species, it was expanded to include the area on both sidess of the walkway. All the components of the original garden, including the painted brick butterfly design, will remain but in a slightly different configuration.

     The Old Guard Mess & Muster on April 28 promises a full day of educational and entertaining programs. Please join us for all the activities.

     As always, we recognize that our accomplishments and successes are directly related to the support and assistance of the Old Guard and our many volunteers. We thank you and look forward to a great 2018.

Fort Larned Roll Call: Ellen Jones
by Ellen Jones, Park Ranger

     In June last year Park Volunteer Jan Elder and I were treated to a private tour of the Mahaffie Farm and Historic Garden, otherwise known as the Mahaffie Stagecoach Stop and Farm Historic Site, in Olathe, Kansas. The stagecoach stop is the only working stop known to still exist on the Santa Fe Trail.

     Our purpose, besides getting together and having fun (as Jan and I always do) was to visit a viable historic garden for some informal training and inspiration. Jan Elder has been the primary gardener for Fort Larned's historic garden since 2014. I oversee the garden's day-to-day needs which are very important since Jan lives four hours away!

     The Mahaffie Farm, on the Westport part of the Santa Fe Trail, is very impressive. James B. And Lucinda Mahaffie purchased 340 acres in 1857. By the year 1864, coaches had started using the farm for regular stops. Passengers disembarked, ate a meal, and stretched their legs on the nicely kept grounds surrounding the Mahaffie stone house. Incoming teams of horses were switched for fresh animals and newsy tidbits of the Trail were spread among the hired hands. The arrival of the railroad ended the stagecoach stops in Olathe. The Mahaffie home and surrounding property were eventually purchased by the City of Olathe in 1979 to insure its preservation and operate as a musuem and historic site.

     We entered the Heritage Center where we met our tour guide, Interpretive Program Manager Katie Lange. Katie has been involved in every aspect of the farm for the past three years. She rolled out the red carpet and showed us what the daily operation entailed--not only with the kitchen garden but with the living-history demonstrations too. On our way to tour the Mahaffies' original vernacular-style stone house, we watched school children being led by staff and volunteers in some very fun learning activities of the 19th century. They were immersed in old fashioned games, chuck wagon meals, and up close (maybe a little to close) to a variety of farm animals like chickens, cows, pigs, and sheep. We observed the students getting rides from a volunteer operating the stagecoach. I noticed the volunteers had living-history clothing much like what we wear but the ladies dresses were hemmed a foot off the ground. Katie explained the hems wouldn't get soiled or tattered as quickly.

     Touring the house was a real treat. Filled with antiques and some original artifacts belonging to the Mahaffie family, I couldn't help but compare the beautiful woodwork-floors, baseboards, doors, and trim to that belonging to Fort Larned. The two-story limestone house was constructed with two-foot thick blocks of stone quarried on the property. There was an attached cellar that was used as a dining room for stagecoach passengers and is believed to have served 70 passengers a day in 1867--the peak year for stagecoach travel in the area.

     After touring the house, Katie took us to a very healthy looking kitchen garden and the first thing I noticed was the asparagus. Jan marveled at the heads of cabbage--rows upon rows. The pea plants, one we have struggled with, were going bonkers. The Mahaffie garden is twice as big as Fort Larned's garden, and several volunteers adjusted a daily schedule for working at planting, weeding, and harvesting. Though they are not as strict as to which vegetables to grow--we only grow from heritage seeds, participate in seed saving, and choose only vegetables on the 1869 post garden list. The Mahaffie garden had a vegetable plant we found very interesting, Bloody Butcher corn, which dates back to the 1840s.

     Katie Lange knew we were impressed. She gave us an envelope of the seed. We had a great crop this past summer as you can see by the picture. Be sure to take a closer look at the Bloody Butcher corn this next summer. If you haven't stopped by Mahaffie Farm, it is well worth the trip when you are next in the Kansas City area.

     Mahaffie Stagecoach Stop and Farm Historic Site is an official component of the Santa Fe National Historic Trail, designed by the National Park Service, and a partner site of Freedom's Frontier National Heritage Area. About twenty acres remain of the original 340-acre farm once owned by James and Lucinda Mahaffie.

The New Fort Larned Elementary School
by Ellen Jones, Park Ranger

     Many students in Larned recently began the second half of the school year in the new and beautifully-designed school building. Fort Larned Elementary opened its doors on August 17, 2017, for the 2017-2018 school year. Students in first-grade through fifth-grade were greeted with a large "WELCOME" painted above the auditorium door. A gray line incorporated along the wall of the entrance represents the Santa Fe Trail. Important landmarks are pictured in frames along the hallways-a donation from the late Dr. David Clapsaddle and his wife, Alice. David collaborated with Principal Lea Harding in 2015 when they drew up plans to incorporate the Santa Fe Trail into the design.

     On Tuesday, January 23, Ranger Ellen Jones and Volunteer Christine Hagerman arrived from the Fort. We parked in front of the mostly brick building that has sharp angles and large windows, and the sandstone wall reminiscent of Fort Larned's original stone buildings really stands out. After checking in at the office, we set up a program in a large breakout area for the fourth-graders. Above the wide entry way the lettering tells us we are entering into an area known as "Sibley's Camp." The younger students have a matching conclave area off another hallway named "Pike's Camp." The space is ideal for our hands-on program where the students have elbow room. The fourth-graders file in and sit on brightly colored carpet. The outstanding learning environment at the school is evident when seeing the students' faces; they are comfortable, observant, happy, and ready to listen. The ample floor space allows us to give an education program without shuffling desks around and scoping out table space.

     There is so much more to this school we have yet to see. The Fort's namesake school is engaged with the historic Santa Fe Trail along every hallway, and we like that!

     Principal Lea Harding was recently asked, "The different 'camps' are related to the Santa Fe Trail--what other signs are there that connect to the Trail?"

     Principal Harding replies: There are numerous signs throughout the school that are tied to the Santa Fe Trail and Fort Larned. A great deal of credit is owed to the late David Clapsaddle of Larned, who provided me with the history of our area. Through many great conversations with him, I was afforded to name various areas of our school based on his knowledge and recommendation.

     The camp areas are named after two explorers that came thruogh this area, Zebulon Pike and George Sibley. The main corridor down the center of the school is referred to as "The Trail." The carpeting along The Trail is intended to represent wood plank floors, similar to those we see at Fort Larned. Those wooden plank floors lead to carpeting in Pike Camp and Sibley Camp that is green to represent grass. The structure of the library is very similar to the Blockhouse at Fort Larned, both inside and outside. The stone on the outside will of the library is also supposed to represent the stone used on the buildings at Fort Larned. One last representationis the commons area. Cinder blocks are laid out in the map of the Santa Fe Trail and painted a darker color to contrast against the rest of the wall. It is our hope to paint historical landmarks on the wall along this Santa Fe Trail built into the wall.

     As time progresses, we will continue to represent the history of our community throughout the school. It brings us great pride being able to do so!

Grayson Maxwell, Fort Larned Elementary Student, Receives Photo Contest Award From The Kansas State Historical Society
by Ellen Jones, Park Ranger
     The staff at Fort Larned received a call from a very excited parent the week of Kansas Day. Christina Frick's son, Grayson Maxwell, received an award and recognition for a photograph he took at the Fort. The Happy Birthday Kansas photo contest is held by the Kansas State Historical Society each year for students in grades 1 through 12. Grayson, a 2nd-grade student at Fort Larned Elementary School, won second place. Each grade has two winners. There are currently 24 photographs on display in the Capitol building through mid-February.

     Grayson's photo features the cannon on the parade ground with the barracks/hospital building in the background. The theme for the photo contest was Community History. Not pictured here is his actual prize, a Kindle, but visible is the winning photograph of the cannon. He has another close-up photo of the cannon that won 1st Place at the Pawnee County Fair. This will be so memorable for Grayson, his family, and Fort Larned! Be sure to visit the Kansas State Historical Society website that features his photo: {www.kshs.org/p/happy-birthday-kansas-photo-contest/18622}.

     Grayson and his family hardly ever miss a special event at the Fort. They enjoy watching Pete the Blacksmith and have a lengthy chain with links he's given them over the years. The staff at Fort Larned congratulates Grayson on this wonderful award and thank him for choosing Fort Larned for his state's Community History!

Fort Larned Rocks!
By Ellen Jones, Park Ranger

(Park Rangers at Fort Larned NHS provide educational programs for young students, at the Fort and in the schools. Here is a look at a new program.)
     The sandstone construction of Fort Larned was completed 150 years ago in 1868. The Park Ranger staff decided to tie this milestone into our education programs for the school field trips. You can imagine how the combination of science and history appeals to our partner teachers. Since receiving the Every Kid in the Park grant, which helps with bus fuel costs, we will be seeing more 4th graders than any other grade. Kansas's fourth graders start a unit this semester in Geology and we have the rocks to help them learn. Recently, Ranger Ellen Jones presented Fort Larned Rocks! to 280 4th-grade students at the Reno County Water Festival. Here is a glimpse into the program.

     Fort Larned Rocks! introducews the three different kinds of rock: metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary. All these types of stones were used to build the fort--from the limestone thresholds to the company streeets to the gravel walkways leading to the flagpole. But the sedimentary Dakota sandstone and post limestone are the focus of this program. In case your memory of old science lessons has failed you, sedimentary rock is common in Central Kansas.

     The pre-site visits to 4th-grade classrooms offer students a closer look at many samples of these two rocks, including an experiment. Several nice limestone pieces have visible fossils. Students connect the limestone to living organisms that formed the rock--even though the rock itself is inorganic--by extracting the mineral calcite with vinegar and water. Many pairs of eyes light up when they see gas bubbles containing carbon dioxide form on the rock.

     A 4th-grade student from Hutchinson examines lichens on sandstone.

     Sandstone is quite different. It is made up of quartz, mica, feldspar, and lots of other minerals. The students take small samples of sandstone and emerge them in water, then examine the composition. It becomes very gritty and breaks easily. We talk about erosion and weathering on the sandstone. The water absorbs quickly as if the rock were a sponge. Color shows if the sandstone has some clay or iron ore. The program is interesting and fun.

     Lastly, the students are shown a picture with a person's name carved on one of the fort buildings. This presents the opportunity for the park ranger to share a compelling message about protection and preservation. The students read, aloud together, the Organic Act of 1916:

     "To conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations."

     Offering pre-site programs for classroom visits is important when preparing students for their field trip. Showing the National Park Foundation that we are successfully scheduling with area teachers and giving these programs really boosts our chances of receiving the Every Kid in the Park grant in the coming years.

     The staff is excited for the field trip season to begin in March. Students will learn more about the Fort's geology, archeology, and historic resources. By the end of the day all will know why Fort Larned Rocks!

Volunteer Roll Call: Ernie & Lynn Banks
by Clayton Hanson, Park Ranger

     If you visit Fort Larned after the first week of March, be sure to welcome new volunteers Ernie and Lynn Banks. They are finishing a stint as winter campground hosts with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers at Lake Strom Thurmond, on the Georgia-South Carolina border, before they head west to Kansas. At the Fort, they will be staying at the RV pad and lending a hand or two during spring events.

     Both Lynn and Ernie were born in Georgia but met in Florida in the 1970s. At the time, Ernie worked for Boeing at the Kennedy Space Center and Lynn was an audiologist. Lynn also taught 7th-and 8th-grade math and was a hospital volunteer. After retiring for the first time in 2007, they headed west to Boulder CO and Ernie's new job at Ball Aerospace and Technologies.

     They retired again in 2016 and decided to start a two-year RV journey across the United States while they were still young. Along the way, they have visited their kids, grandkids, and other family members, while volunteering at national parks and other public lands.

     Their wanderings have taken them from Forest Service campgrounds to U. S. Fish and Wildlife refuges and from Army Corps reservoirs to National Park Service sites. At Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Park, they worked as volunteer docents at LBJ's Ranch and Texas White House.

     They are excited about the chance to visit Fort Larned and learn about the West. What kind of skills did it take to pioneer the Plains? What was it like to live in Kansas in the 1860s?

     Like travelers on the Santa Fe Trail, we willbe their last stop before they head to the mountains and deserts of the Far West. In the meantime, they are looking forward to watching the sunsets adn stars coming out over the prairie.

Post Surgeons: Steven G. Cowdrey
by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger
(This is ninth of the series on the post surgeons at Fort Larned.)

     Dr. John W. Brewer was relieved by Acting Assistant Surgeon J. H. Collins on April 24, 1872. Dr. Collins served as Fort Larned's Post Surgeon until December 8, 1873. Although there is no biographical information about him on file, there was one significant event that occurred during his tenure--Special Order No. 82 was issued on June 22, 1873, authorizing the construction of the earth closet in the new hospital on the east side of the east barracks building, as well as steward's quarters for the hospital steward. The orginal cost appropriated for both was $189.14, although additional money would be needed to complete the work, bringing the final cost up to $360.28 (approximately $9,000 in today's value).

     The steward's quarters was a 12 by 18 by 10 feet light frame building with battens to cover the cracks. It had two windows and a pitched roof and was located behind the east barracks building. The earth closet was added on the back of second hospital ward and constructed of the same materials as the steward's quarters. Its dimensions were 9 by 9 by 10 feet. It had a window on the outside wall and two doors, one to the outside, and one for access from the ward. The interior walls were lathed and plastered, the woodwork was painted, and the floors were a tongue and groove pine. The shed-like roof was shingled.

     The earth closet was a great improvement for soldiers in the hospital who were well enough not to need a bed pan but too sick to go outisde in inclement weather. The earth closet was invented in 1860 by the Rev. Henry Moule, a clergyman in England who wanted to give his poor parishioners who couldn't afford indoor plumbing a sanitary way to dispose of waste. It works by covering waste with dirt, which can later be used for fertilizer.

     On December 8, 1872, Dr. Collins was relieved by Assistant Surgeon Steven George Cowdrey. Dr. Cowdrey was born on June 13, 1838, at Plymouth, New Hampshire. He attended high school in Woburn, Massachusetts, from 1853 to1857, after which he entered Harvard, graduating in 1861. From 1861 to 1866, Cowdrey taught at several different schools in Massachusetts before entering Harvard Medical School in November 1866. He finished his medical degree at Berkshire Medical College in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in September 1867. He became an Assistant Surgeon in the U. S. Army on November 16, 1868, making him one of a new generation of army officers who did not start their army careers during the Civil War.

     Before coming to Fort Larned, Dr.Cowdrey was stationed at Carlisle Pennsylvania from 1868 to 1870. In 1870 he was in the field with the 7th Cavalry near Fort Harker, Kansas. He was also married on November 17 of that year to Mary Galbraith Hall. The couple would have three daughters, Annie, born August 3, 1875, Mary, born Oct. 21, 1876, and Ruth, born November 21, 1878. From Fort Harker, Dr. Cowdrey went to Indian Territory where he was first stationed at Fort Gibson, and then at Camp Supply until reporting to Fort Larned in December 1872. He received his appointment to captain in 1871.

     Although Dr. Cowdrey would be the post surgeon until 1875, he started his time at Fort Larned on the wrong side of the post commander, Captain Henry Bristol. Almost a month after Cowdrey's arrival, in January 1873, Captain Bristol came to the hospital and was disappointed at not finding the surgeon in attendance. Surgeon Cowdrey was most likely attending to other duties, but Captain Bristol still felt the need to reprimand him through a note from the post adjutant.

     It's possible the sting of that reprimand was still fresh in Dr. Cowdrey's mind when a dispute arose between him and Captain Bristol over the number of private horses the surgeon had that were entitled to forage. Army regulations allowed officers to draw forage for two private horses. According to a letter Dr. Cowdrey wrote in February 1873 to the Assistant Adjutant General for the Department of the Missouri, Captain Bristol had ordered the quartermaster to issue him forage for only one horse even though he had a "requisition and receipt (for) property signed for two horses for (the) current month."

     In Captain Bristol's reply to the complaint, he claimed that Dr. Cowdrey hadn't complied with a request he sent asking him how many private horses he had at the post, to which Dr. Cowdrey replied that he never received the request and didn't understand why the certificate he signed that indicated his ownership of two horses wasn't enough to satisfy the request.

     In further correspondence to the Assistant Adjutant General's office, Captain Bristol explained that when he received the doctor's request for forage for two horses, he said he wasn't aware tht the surgeon had more than one horse. he goes on to explain that since he had been told that "he (Cowdrey) gave forage to a person here who had a horse, I requested of Assistant Surgeon S. G. Cowdrey, U. S. Army by endorsement marked 'A' to be informed of the number of horses actually kept by him, to which he replied, in the communication marked 'B.' I then directed my quartermaster to issue forage for one horse until I was satisfied that Assistant Surgeon S. G. Cowdrey, U. S. A. had two, the number authorized by law."

     Captain Bristol ends by explaining that he felt it was the right of the commanding officer to know how many horses anyone on his post owned if they were requesting forage for them. He also suggested that Dr. Cowdrey might want to apply for a transfer to "some station where he will have more to do and no time to split hairs."

     This dispute is a good example of the kind of petty bickering that often went on between officers, who took refuge behind the letter of the law and army regulations, sending complaints up the chain of command, rather than solving their differences in person.

     Dr. Cowdrey's time at Fort Larned as post surgeon came during the waning years fo the fort's existence as an active military post. The garrison strength was small and constantly being reduced and there wasn't much happening. As part of his duties, Surgeon Cowdrey recorded events at the post and the surrounding area but most of what he recorded was routine.

     He was relieved by Assistant Surgeon Augustus De Loffer on June 8, 1875. Cowdrey's subsequent military career seems to have been solid yet undistinguished. After leaving Fort Larned he was stationed at various posts throughout the country before retiring in 1887. He died on February 22, 1891.

The Enlisted Men of Company C, Third Infantry
Part X--Richard C. Bullock
by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger

     (Fort Larned's main interpretive year is 1868, which is the year the stone buildings were completed. Company C, 3rd U. S. Infantry, was stationed at Fort Larned during that year and part of the research for the restoration of the barracks and hospital building was finding out information for most of these enlisted men. That information was compiled in the Historic Furnishing Study: Enlisted Men's Barracks and Post Hospital, HS-2. Here is the tenth installment in a series on the enlisted men whose information is included in that report. There are no photos available for these enlisted soldiers.)

     Richard Bullock was born in 1847 and enlisted in the Army on February 25, 1867, in Fon du Lac, Wisconsin. As will be seen, the story of his time at Fort Larned during 1868 shows the ups and downs experienced by enlisted men in the frontier Army.

     From January 1 to March 15 Bullock was on company duty except for two illnesses that had him sick in the barracks for short periods in February and March. On February 7, he reported to sick call with bronchitis and wasn't able to return to duty until the 10th. On March 8 he was back at sick call, this time complaining of an intermittent fever, which kept him off duty until the 14th. When he returned to duty on the 15th he was sent to detached service on picket duty at Fort Zarah for the rest of the month. The up part of Bullock's budding military career came on February 18 when he was promoted to corporal.

     Corporal Bullock remained on detached service at Fort Zarah until April 15 when he returned to company duty until May 13, when he was reported sick in his quarters with an intermittent fever until the 30th. He was back on company duty in June, but returned to sick call on the 24th. This time his ailment was rheumatism, which kept him sick in the barracks until the 27th, after which he returned to company duty. Corporal Bullock experienced a down turn in his military service during June when he was demoted back to private on the 17th for an unknown reason.

     During the month of July Private Bullock was assigned daily duty as the company cook. There is no information about how he did in this capacity. Army practice at the time was to assign men extra duty as company cooks regardless of whether they had any knowledge or experience in cooking. We can only hope for the sake of his fellow soldiers that Bullock did well at this particular duty.

     From August to October Private Bullock spent most of his time on company duty, except for a stint on extra duty in the Post Quartermaster Department from August 8 through the 31st. For the months of November and December he was assigned daily duty as the Post Librarian.

     Bullock chose not to make a career of the military and was eventually discharged from the Army. Although he might have returned to his native Wisconsin after leaving the army, at some point he moved to New York because Julius C. Baler. one of the other Company C enlisted men, wrote to him at a residence near Cherry Creek, New York. There was no information on marriage or children but it would be interesting to see if he's related to the famous actress Sandra Bullock.

Flags And The Flagpole, Part 1
by Sam Young, Fort Larned NHS Volunteer

     As the wagon train you and your family joined some weeks ago rolls westward on the Road to Santa Fe, it approaches Pawnee Rock, a prominent terrain feature. In the grassy flat land near its base, your wagon train bivouacs close to the camp of an eastbound wagon train. After supper you and some folks from the other train take your families and climb up the "Rock" to look around. You suddenly see something way off to the southwest and say "What is that?" One of the east-bound travelers says it is a flagpole with a gigantic flag at Fort Larned, an Army post. You say "but why such a tall flagpole with so large a flag?" Your new friend says it is like a beacon to help you find your way there. A fellow traveler says it also shows the presence of the U. S. Government and the protection it provides in the hostile land, and that tomorrow your wagon train, which is taking the "dry-route" to Santa Fe, will bivouac near there along the north bank of the Pawnee River.

     Your wagon train remains near Fort Larned for a couple of days as some wagons need repairs. You visit the Post and see the flagpole up close and its large flag waving in the breeze. Your exploring leads you to the Post Sutler where you purchase a few items before you settle down with a cup of coffee. While there you chat with several other Sutler patrons. Your focus is on the tall flagpole and the big flag. You learn the flagpole is 100 feet tall with a brass ball on top to prevent rain water from soaking into the top of the pole and causing it to rot. It also has a lightning rod in case the pole is struck by lightning. Curious, you ask how it keeps from being blown over. None of your table mates can answer your question except to say you need to talk with the officer who is the Fort's engineer.

     A Cavalry lieutenant sitting at a nearby table hears your discussion about the big flag and slides his chair over to your table. He says the flag is called a garrison flag because it flies over the garrison. So you ask wuat garrison means. He says it is what the soldiers are called who live there and the name of the place where they live. He said there are actually two flags that are flown on the flagpole, the large one you see flying today and a smaller one for when the weather is not good.

     You then say you know the flag is the official flag of he United States, that the seven red stripes and six white stripes are for the original thirteen states, and that each state is represented by a single star. You also state that before the Civil War the only flag you regularly saw was in your school and one occasionally in a parade. But as the War progressed, you began to see flags everywhere. They all had the thirteen stripes, all in the same pattern, but almost all of the flags had different patterns for displaying the stars. An Infantry sergeant said thee were no laws regarding the pattern for the stars and that every flag maker used his or her own pattern such as a circle of stars, a star made of stars, and many other styles. The sergeant said he had even seen flags with the states' initials instead of stars. He further said the Army had a regulation that described the flag. The lieutenant explained there were no laws as to how the flag was to be displayed. He had seen it flying from a flagpole, used as a table cloth, and even draped over a building as if it could keep out rain. The two soldiers and a couple of civilians also talked about seeing smaller U. S. flags carried into battle by groups of soldiers having various battles fought in by the soldiers hand painted on the flag's stripes. One of the group said he had seen flags made into clothing while another said he had seen a dead soldier's body wrapped in the flag when it was buried. According to them anything could and had been done with the flag; it was a piece of cloth.

     You suddenly hear a bugle. The lieutenant tells you to look at the flagpole. You see a smaller flag being raised. Before your can ask, the lieutenant says that it is the storm flag which is flown in bad weather. As you walk back to your wagon, thinking about what you had learned, you can hardly keep your hat on as the wind, blowing from the southwest, has gotten so strong.

     The story you just read is fictitious, but the facts are true. There was an Army regulation in 1863 that stated in Article L (Flags, Colors, Standards, Guidons), paragraph 1464 (Garrison Flag): The garrison flag is the national flag. It is made of bunting, thirty-six feet fly, and twenty feet hoist, in thirteen horizontal stripes of equal breadth, alternately red and white, beginning with the red. In the upper quarter, next to the staff, is the Union, composed of a number of white stars, equal to the number of States, on a blue field, one-third the length of the flag, extending to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe from the top. The storm flag is twenty feet (fly) by ten feet (hoist); the recruiting flag, nine feet nine inches by four feet four inches.

     In Vol. 2, American Military Equipage 1851-1872 by Frederick Todd, he writes that the large flags were flown in good weather, on holidays, and important occasions. He further wrote that the storm flag was flown on all other days and that the recruiting flag was for display over small buildings.

     During the period 1859-1878 that Fort Laarned was an active military post, there were six different national flags that flew from its flagpole. When Fort Larned was established in 1859 the national flag contained 33 stars and was adopted on 4 July 1859 after the admission of Oregon to the growing list of states.

     The admission of Kansas to statehood as the 34th state on 29 January 1861 caused the creation of a new national flag with 34 stars which was adopted on 4 July 1861.

     Before the closing of Fort Larned in 1878 four more states joined the Union with each causing a new official U. S. Flag to be adopted: the 35th state was West Virginia (20 June 1863), 36th was Nevada (31 October 186), 37th was Nebraska (1 March 1867), and 38th was Colorado (1 August 1876).

     This is an example of a pattern for the 33 stars since there was no official pattern.

     This is one of the 34 star patterns and is frequently seen in pictures and paintings of U. S. forces during the Civil War and often carried by Civil War reenacters.

     (Note: On 4 April 1818 President James Monroe signed an Act of Congress that provided for 13 stripes and one star for each state, to be added to the flag on the 4th of July following the admission of each new state. This Act remains in effect. On 24 June 1912, President William Howard Taft signed an Executive Order affecting the 48th state, Arizona, to be granted statehood. It established the placement of the stars in six horizontal rows of eight each with a single point of each star to be upward. This was the first time the star pattern and placement was made official. The 49th and 50th states each had their own flag with presidential executive orders designating the star pattern.)

     On 14 June 1923, since the United States did not have a flag code, representatives of over 68 organizations, under the guidance of the American Legion, drafted a model National Flag Code as a guide for the idsplay and use of the U. S. Flag.That Code, with little change, became Public Law 77-623, Chapter 435, on 22 June 1942. The most recent change to that law, in 2009, allows military members when not in uniform and veterans to render the military salute during the National Anthem, when the flag is raised on and lowered from a flagpole, and when the U. S. Flag passes during a parade or military Review.

     Today Fort Larned National Historic Site flies three different flags from its flagpole. The largest is the 37-star Garrison Flag (36 feet fly by 20 feet hoist). It is flown on holidays and for special events. The next largest is the 37-star Storm Flag (20 feet fly by 10 feet hoist). It is flown in the spring, summer, and fall, and during the winter on really nice days. The smallest flag (10 feet fly by 5 feet hoist) is 50-star and is flown during the winter and on extremely windy days. If you have experienced the strong Kansas winds at Fort Larned you know they can be very destructive. Even new flags, designed for severe weather and strong winds, may only last for a few hours in those winds.
     (to be continued)

     Part 2, Flags and the Flagpole, will be published in the 2018 Spring Fort Larned Outpost. It will focus on the archaeological info on how the original flagpole was done and the flagpole plans used today.

Cultural Crossroads 1
Cheyenne and Arapaho
by Clayton Hanson, Park Ranger

(Ranger Hanson is starting a new series for Outpost, looking at Fort Larned as a Cultural Crossroads. This is a welcome addison,)
     Fort Larned is a crossroads on the Santa Fe Trail. Chance and planned meetings here brought moments of conflict, cooperation, and change to members of many different cultures. This was especially true for Cheyenne and Arapaho visitors. At the Fort, General Winfield S. Hancock's indifference to the words of chiefs Tall Bull and White Horse led directly to the violent summer of 1867. Indian agents distributed annuities of money, food, guns, and tools here, and these items changed Indian trade relations. When tribal leaders spent dollars at the sutler's store, the clerk might have understood the words of their languages but he was also speaking to them in the cant of American commerce. The effects of their encounters at this place are even clearer when one learns the histories of the Cheyenne and Arapaho peoples.

     American and European popular culture since the nineteenth century has often treated "Cheyenne" and "Arapaho" as just two names among an interchangeable and timeless group of bison hunters and warriors. This is, at best, a massive simplification. They might have shared and still share many customs with their neighbors on the Great Plains. They might have overlapping dealings with white men. But to understand them, we have to see that they have their own stories and histories distinct from each other and their neighbors.

     This can be difficult as even the names they are best-known by come from other people. "Cheyenne" is from a Lakota word usually translated as "red-talker." According to tradition, the original word referred to speakers of Algonquian languages like Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Gros Ventre, and Ojibwe. The origin of "Arapaho" is less clear. It might be from the Pawnee word for "trader" or the Apsaalooke word for "tattooed." In their own languages, the Cheyenne were "Tsetsehestahese" and the Arapaho "Hinon'eino." Both terms mean something close to "people like us."

     The process of becoming "people like us" seems to have begun elsewhere. Even today, most Algonquin peoples live to the north and east of the Plains in the woodlands between Hudson Bay and the Atlantic Coast. Arapaho author Virginia Sutter wrote that tribal elders told stories of their ancestors' journeys east of the Mississippi River. It should not be surprising, then, that Pipe Person of the Arapaho creation story formed the earth from mud taken from a great body of water. Nor that anthropologist George Bird Grinnell recorded Cheyenne oral traditions that talked of the first people traveling alongside a lake that was too wide to cross. Those places were as wet as the Plains are dry.

     Often Indian people moved west because of the indirect pressure of conflict and war with European colonists. The timeline fits their stories as both peoples arrived on the prairies no later than the early 1700s. Dakota and Mandan people told the first European visitors of Cheyenne villages along tributaries of the Missouri River. Perhaps, they lived like these villagers of the eastern prairies. If they did, then they would have planted fields of corn, beans, and squash in the spring and harvested it in the fall. When bison herds drew close in the summer, they would have hunted them. In the winter, they would have withdrawn into their villages.

     A new arrival--the horse--rapidly broadened their world to encompass the whole of the Great Plains. The Arapaho were already breeding horses along river valleys in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains by the 1740s. Cheyenne tradition holds that Sweet Medicine had his vision of Cheyenne government and the coming of white people, horses, and cattle at Bear Butte north of the Black Hills around this time. By the 1790s, the Cheyenne were also raising herds of horses and hunting bison as their primary source of food. The Plains opened to the restless horse herds and their riders.

     They allied with one another and moved into the country between the Platte and the Arkansas in the first years of the nineteenth century. As Missourians and New Mexicans established the Santa Fe Trail along the Arkansas River, the Cheyenne and Arapaho drove the Comanche and their Kiowa allies south of it.They became the go-betweens for traders like the Bents and Ceran St. Vrain. Many merchants and traders recognized their power and married the relatives of tribal leaders.

     With the "Great Peace of 1840" among the peoples of the Central and Southern Plains, traffic surged along the Santa Fe Trail. For a time, this meant a busy hide trade at Bent's Old Fort and elsewhere as Cheyenne and Arapaho people exchanged bison hides for manufactured goods including beads and dyes. Both groups had a long tradition of beadwork--the Cheyenne say that it came to them from a bison disguised as a woman--but the new materials and colors led to the patterns usually associated with them.

     In 1851 the U. S. government guaranteed protection to the Arapaho and Cheyenne in the first Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Army and Indian Agents rarely successfully enforced these guarantees, especially as the stream of whites turned to a flood during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush of 1858-61. Seeming to confirm Sweet Medicine's prophecy, these emigrants brought cattle that grazed the short grasses to a nub along a swath of the Arkansas Valley. At the same time, the Upper Arkansas Agency did distribute goods annually from Fort Lyon and, later, Fort Larned.

     After the droughts of the late 1850s and early 1860s and the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864, many more Arapaho and Cheyenne people turned to warrior societies. In 1865, these warriors including the Dog Soldiers struck back at mail stations, ranches, and freight traffic. Some leaders of the Cheyenne and Arapaho also signed a new series of peace treaties with the U. S. government. The Treaty of the Little Arkansas River in 1865 promised reparation to the two peoples for the brutal butchery of peaceful women and children, established reservations, and promised hunting could continue north of the Arkansas River so long as bison were there. The Medicine Lodge Treaty prohibited hunting north of the Arkansas River, but Commissioner John Henderson falsely told them the hunting could continue to persuade the leaders to sign. It was duplicity, not diplomacy. The first treaty was ratified but nerer enforced and the latter was not ratified. The peace was broken with the Indian Wars of 1868-1869, when the tribes were defeated and forced to move to the reservations.

     Forced onto a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma, history did not stop for the majority of the Cheyenne and Arapaho living there. Nor did it stop for the northern bands of the Cheyenne around Fort Keogh in Montana or the northern Arapaho living near Fort Washakie in Wyoming. The structure of Cheyenne leadership established from Sweet Medicine's visions--the Council of Forty-Four peace chiefs and the military societies--survived and survives. Cheyenne and Arapaho people survived decades of forced assimilation at boarding schools and, then, countless changes in federal Indian policy.

Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma

Northern Cheyenne Flag

Arapaho Nation Flag

     Today, Cheyenne and Arapaho peoples continue to live on reservations and in urban areas around the country. The Northern Arapaho, the Northern Cheyenne, and the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho live under not only the Stars and Stripes as they would have seen at Fort Larned but their own flags.

Maintenance Matters
by William Chapman, Facility Manager
Bronze Cleaning from an Expert

     A bronze-cleaning workshop presented by Carson Norton was held on Sunday, November 19, 2017, and was successful. Carson provided information not only on cleaning and sealing the bronze pieces but how to perform an inspection of the piece, looking for signs of corrosion and casting imperfections. The audience at the workshop learned about the fabrication of a piece and watched the assembly. There are areas which often need more sensitive cleaning with measured applications. Carson spoke about softer metals and the application of patina finishes which can act differently to these areas too. The program was very educational and presented well. Good job Carson.

     Carson Norton of the Fort's maintenance division is an artist and sculptor. He and his father Charlie Norton have formed Norton Enterprises. One of their most recent completed bronzes can be seen in Wamego, Kansas. "Duty Calls" is of a life-size soldier from World War II in the Wamego City Park.

Revegetation Project Continues
     Why is the dirt so fuzzy at the Fort? Recently the ongoing revegetation project associated with the bridge replacement of 2013 was hydro-seeded in all the areas of recent dirt work. Now the ground has a fuzzy yellow hue from the paper fiber mulch that was applied with the seeding.

     The earth work was noted in the August 2017 Maintenance Matters. In addition to the dirt work, 30 trees and 90 shrubs were planted in the parking lot islands, around the vault toilet structure, picnic area, and the river banks where the demolished bridge once stood. The trees and shrubs selected were native to the area when the Fort was first established. Additional native grasses and forbs, including a river grape vining plant, were planted in butterfly garden areas. This effort did remove nonnative plants that had been planted to attract and provide food and shelter to pollinators. But the use of native plants, once established, will provide a traditional food and shelter micro-environment for the pollinators-- a more desirable food source than the nonnatives, according to the naturalists we worked with. Many of the design elements of the butterfly garden that were constructed by volunteers will be kept, but the landscape work will continue this year.

Fort Larned Old Guard Annual Mess & Muster, April 28, 2018
     The 2018 Fort Larned Old Guard Mess & Muster presents a day of programs on April 28, "Weapons and Hunting on the Great Plains." The program flyer inserted in this issue, designed as noted elsewhere by Derek Shaffer, includes the day's schedule and reservation form for lunch and dinner. There is no charge for the programs, but reservations for meals must be received by April 17, 2018. Please direct any questions about the program and make reservations by contacting Leo Oliva, telephone 888-321-7341 or 785-476-5033. Please leave a message if he does not answer. Please invite anyone who may be interested.

     The design on the flyer is also used on posters that have been placed thorughout the area, and a large banner (see link) will be auctioned at the conclusion of the program Saturday evening.

Registration Information
     Meals (reservations required for meal count by April 17, 2018, contact Leo Oliva at 888-321-7341 or 785-476-5033; email oliva@ruraltel.net; or mail PO Box 1, Woodston KS 67675)

The program for April 28, 2018 follows:
Fort Larned NHS:

     8:30-9:30 a.m.: Visit Fort Museum and Buildings
     9:30 a.m.: Ken Weidner, "Plains Indian Weapons"
     10:30 a.m.: Break
     10:45 a.m.: Mike Seymour and George Elmore, "Military Weapons and Sporting Weapons"
     12:15 p.m.: Sack Lunch, reservations required (choice of turkey or ham sandwich, chips, fruit, brownie, and bottle of water)
     1:00 p.m.: Weapons Firing Demonstration
     1:30 p.m.: Leo Oliva, "Bison Hunting on the Plains"
     2:30 p.m.: Ellen Jones, "Women Hunters on the Plains"
     3:30 p.m.: Break
     3:45 p.m.: Sam Young, "Bugles and Bugle Calls"
     5:00 p.m.: Retreat, Fort Larned Parade Ground
     6:00 p.m.: Dinner at Larned Community Center, reservations required (menu: smoked brisket, potatoes, green beans, garden salad, rolls, dessert, and coffee or tea). brief business meeting, and presentation of awards.
Move across the hall to auditorium:
     7:15 p.m.: Music by Prairie Larkspur (Janet Armstead & Chris Day)
     7:45 p.m.: Wendell Grangaard, "Guns That Talk to Us: Historic Indian Firearms fo the Little Bighorn"

New Memberships
     Fort Larned Old Guard welcomes the following new member:
     Robert Rhodes, 201 W. Main, Oakland IL, 61943

Calendar
     Dec. 9, 2017: Christmas Open House, 1:00-4:00 p.m.
     April 28, 2018: Fort Larned Old Guard annual Mess & Muster
     (see insert for details and reservation required for meals)

Deadline for next issue: May 1, 2018

Use Smile.Amazon To Benefit Fort Larned Old Guard
     The request for readers to use Smile.Amazon to benefit the Old Guard in the last issue mistakenly gave the incorrect sign-in for the website. The correct sign-in is Smile.Amazon. Fort Larned Old Guard has received donations from several orders, all greatly appreciated. If you order from Amazon, please consider using Smile.Amazon and choose Fort Larned Old Guard, Inc. for your donations. Thank you.

Notice:
     If you would prefer to receive OUTPOST as a pdf file via email to save paper and postage, please send a note to the editor at {oliva@ruraltel.net}. You will see color photos in color and may print out the newsletter if you want a hard copy. Thank you.

Membership Reminder
     Annual memberships in the Fort Larned Old Guard expire on December 31. If you have not renewed for 2018, please send dues to membership chair Linda Peters, 1035 S Bridge St, Lakin KS 67860. Additional donations are always welcome to assist with projects of the Old Guard. Thank you so much for all your support!!!

Fort Larned Old Guard Contact Information
     The officers, members of the board of directors, dues information and email's are listed on this page of Information. Please feel free to contact any of us.

Schedule of Annual Events
     True to life stories of the Indian Wars along the Santa Fe Trail, brought to life by some of the greatest volunteers in the West. . . ! Visit the most complete Indian fort surviving from the days when Custer and Buffalo Bill Cody rode through this part of the West on their missions. Original restored buildings to that time period, a visitor center, Park Rangers will guide you through this adventure of the Old West.

Memorial Day Weekend
     (Saturday, Sunday & Monday)
     Largest living history event in western Kansas - experience a working frontier fort.

Labor Day Weekend
     (Saturday, Sunday, & Monday)
     Re-enactors bring Fort Larned back to life for the holiday weekend.

Candlelight Tour
     (2nd Saturday of October)
     Entertaining evening tours with vignettes from the fort's history.

Christmas Open House
     (2nd Saturday of December)
     Old-fashioned Yuletide celebration with hot apple cider, cookies and Christmas carols.

     Fort Larned National Historic Site is a unit of the U.S. National Park Service located six miles west of Larned on Kansas Highway 156. Open 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p. m. daily, the park's Visitor Center/Museum and all furnished buildings are admission free. Information on Fort Larned may be found at {www.nps.gov/fols}, by calling 620-285-6911, or by sending email to {fols_superintendent@nps.gov}.




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