FORT UNION
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     1. Civilians, including employees and their families, were treated at the post hospital because other medical facilities were not available. The number of citizens treated varied from month to month, but the statistics from the month of December 1876 may serve as an example. During that month a total of 425 cases were handled by the post surgeon. Of those, 259 were soldiers treated in their quarters. The remainder, 166, were admitted to the post hospital. Of those, 67 or 40% were civilians and 99 were soldiers. Medical History, Fort Union, Dec. 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     2. SGO, Circular No. 8, 1875, 304.

     3. See chapter 3 for an example.

     4. SGO, Circular No. 8, 1875, 306.

     5. Matthews Letters, Jan. 18, 1870, FUNMA.

     6. Foner, U.S. Soldier Between Two Wars, 23.

     7. Medical History, Fort Union, Oct. 1887, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     8. Fort Thorn, New Mexico, was abandoned because of the "extreme unhealthfulness" of the location. Richard H. Coolidge, comp., Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality in the Army of the United States, 1855-1860 (Washington: George W. Bowman, 1860), 225.

     9. Matthews Letters, Dec. 16, 1873, FUNMA.

     10. Coolidge, Statistical Report on Sickness and Mortality, 225-227, 230-233.

     11. Fort Union Post Surgeon Jonathan Letterman reported in 1856 that the water obtained from the spring near the post "occasionally gives rise to diarrhoea when used by persons not accustomed to it." Letterman, "Sanitary Report—Fort Union," ibid., 225.

     12. Rickey, Forty Miles a Day, 131, wrote: "Venereal diseases were the most common and widespread serious illnesses among the rank and file at the western stations. Some venereal disease was brought to the frontier forts by soldiers transferring from recruit depots and eastern stations, but most infection probably resulted from contacts with Indian women and frontier prostitutes." Rickey found that, in the army during the 1880s, about eighty out of every thousand men contracted some form of venereal infection." Ibid., 170.

     13. SGO, Circular No. 8, 1875, 304.

     14. Detailed statistics on diseases, injuries, and other afflictions among troops stationed in New Mexico, 1849-1859, may be found in Coolidge, Statistical Report on Sickness and Mortality, 230-233.

     15. Ibid.; and Wayne Andrews, ed., Concise Dictionary of American History (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1962), 749.

     16. SGO, Circular No. 4, 1870, 261.

     17. Matthews Letters, Nov. 14, 1870, FUNMA.

     18. SGO, Circular No. 8, 1875, 307.

     19. Magruder to Nichols, Sept. 3, 1855, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     20. Sibley to Jesup, Dec. 3, 1851, LR, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     21. Frazer, Mansfield on the Condition of Western Forts, 33.

     22. Letterman, "Sanitary Report," 221.

     23. Mansfield Inspection Report, Aug. 1853, Misc. File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     24. Orders No. 24, July 28, 1854, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     25. Edson to Anderson, June 5, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     26. Morris to Wilkins, June 15, 1859, ibid.

     27. Morris to Anderson, July 3, 1859, ibid.

     28. Morris to Wilkins, July 26 & 31, 1859, ibid.; and Post Returns, Fort Union, July 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     29. Wilkins to Morris, Aug. 2, 1859, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Morris to Whitlock, Aug. 11 & 26, 1859, & Morris to Van Bokkelen, Aug. 11, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     30. Simonson to Cooper, Nov. 24, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     31. Wilkins to Simonson, Mar. 25, 1860, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     32. Special Orders No. 103, June 15, 1862, HQ DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA, DNM Orders, v. 40, p. 121, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     33. Ghiselin to Wallen, July 11, 1862, & endorsement, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     34. Wallen to Donaldson, Aug. 13, 1862, ibid.

     35. Special Orders No. 179, Oct. 6, 1862, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 40, p. 178, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     36. Even though the army hospital at the hot springs was closed, some patients at Fort Union were sent there to seek relief from some ailments. Surgeon John Shout sent "several soldiers" with severe cases of syphilis to the hot springs for 30 days in 1865, declaring that it was his "opinion" that this would contribute "very favorably upon their health." Shout to Willis, May 22, 1865, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. Lt. C. M. DeLaney, 15th Inf., who had received "a severe sprain of right ankle and knee caused by the fall of a horse" was sent to the hot springs for treatment in 1871. Even then his recovery was slow. Peters to Post Adjt. FU, July 14 & 18, 1871, ibid. In Mar. 1877 Post Surgeon Carlos Carvallo granted Private Christian Hall, Co. E, 9th Cav., sick leave for 30 days to go to the hot springs for treatment of his rheumatism. Medical History, Fort Union, April 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     Post Surgeon Peters wrote, in 1870, that "these springs have, for years, been famous among the inhabitants of this country for their efficacy in relieving rheumatism and chronic syphilitic complaints." He predicted that, "when rendered more accessible, by extension of railroads, it is probable that these springs will be much resorted to." SGO, Circular No. 4, 1870, 260. Post Surgeon Moffatt mentioned the springs five years later, stating that they were "noted for their efficacy in rheumatism and chronic syphilitic complaints." SGO, Circular No. 8, 1875, 303.

     37. Special Orders No. 34, June 18, 1863, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 40, pp. 263-265, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     38. Jas. A. Hardie to Meigs, May 8, 1865, & Bradley to Ludington, May 18, 1869, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA; and Carleton to McMullen, Oct. 18, 1863, & Carleton to Hancock, Nov. 11, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     39. Bradley to Ludington, May 18, 1869, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     40. Special Requisition, July 24, 1866, LR, QM DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     41. General Orders No. 32, Dec. 15, 1866, HQ Dept. of the Missouri, Gen. & Special Orders DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     42. McKee to DeForrest, Oct. 26, 1866, & Carleton's endorsement, Oct. 26, 1866, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     43. Marshall to McIntyre, Nov. 20, 1866, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     44. DuBois to Post Adjt. FU, April 7, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     45. Marshall to CS Gen., Jan. 8, 1867, & DuBois to CS Gen., Jan. 8, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     46. DuBois to Lewis, Feb. 27, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     47. Special Orders No. 70, July 26, 1867, HQ FU, Fort Union Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA; Lane to Getty, July 26, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Jones to Lane, July 27, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     48. Hunter to DuBois, July 27, 1867, & Hunter to CO 38th Inf., July 29, 1867, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Peters to Lane, Aug. 4, 1867, & Merriam to CO FU, Aug. 5, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Lane to Merriam, Aug. 8, 1867, & Peters to [?], Aug. 9, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 75, Aug. 4, 1867, & Special Orders No. 77, Aug. 8, 1867, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     49. Lane to Grover, Aug. 22, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Getty to McKeever, Sept. 5 & Oct. 11, 1867, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Hunter to Lane, Sept. 15, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     50. Peters to Getty, Aug. 27, 1867, & endorsements, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA. One of the additional medical doctors, B. R. S. Boemond, was charged with having incestuous relations with an adopted daughter. An investigation was ordered but no report was found. Dr. Boemond left the staff at Fort Union in 1868, but the details were not found. Post Adjt. FU to Wall, Feb. 26, 1868, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     51. Peters to Post Adjt. FU, Oct. 29, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     52. Medical History, Fort Union, Aug. 1873, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     53. Heitman, Historical Register, 611; and John Lafferty, ACP File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     54. Eckles to CO FU, Nov. 17, 1874, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     55. Ellis AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 17, 1874, LS, FU, ibid.

     56. Heitman, Historical Register, 611; and John Lafferty, ACP File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     57. Medical History, Fort Union, Oct.-Nov. 1873, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     58. Ibid., Nov. 1873-Jan. 1874.

     59. Ibid., Dec. 1873-Jan. 1874.

     60. Eddie Matthews gave an account of the accident: "Doctor Moffatt, Post Surgeon, left the Post during the day to attend a patient living in the country a few miles from the Post. On his return in the evening and when within a mile of the Post his horse slipped on the ice and fell, falling upon the Doctor's leg and breaking it below the Knee. The Dr. was unable to get up and try to catch his horse although the horse remained near him. And there the Dr. and horse remained until about 10 o'clock the next morning. The night was bitter cold and the ground covered with six inches of snow. How the Doctor lived through that night suffering with a broken leg is a wonder to every person. Next morning a Mexican happened to come along and seeing the Doctor hurried in to the Garrison and reported the circumstance, an ambulance was sent out at once and brought the Dr. in. He is doing well now." Matthews Letters, Feb. 8, 1874, FUNMA.

     61. Medical History, Fort Union, Feb.-April 1874, AGO, RG 94, NA. Dr. Moffatt was given a leave of absence until July 15, at which time he was sent from Fort Union to serve as post surgeon at Fort Garland, Colorado Territory. Ibid., July 1874.

     62. Ibid., April 9, 1874.

     63. Ibid., April & July 1874.

     64. Ibid., Nov. 1874.

     65. Ibid., Oct. 1875.

     66. McParlin to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 27, 1875, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Blair to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Jan. 10, 1876, ibid.; and Medical History, Fort Union, Jan. 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     67. Ibid., Feb.-March 1876.

     68. Ibid., April-May 1876.

     69. Ibid., June-Sept. 1876.

     70. Ibid., Oct.-Nov. 1876.

     71. Ibid.

     72. In January 1877 no prisoners were kept at the guardhouse and all were housed in the cells of the military prison. During that month the average daily number of post prisoners was 5.61 and of general prisoners 2.8, for a total average of 8.41 per day. Ibid., Jan. 1877.

     73. Ibid., Nov. 1876. For some unexplained reason, there was a discrepancy of ten men between the post returns, which indicated 216 men at the post, and Carvallo's report of 206 men at the end of November 1876. See, also, Post Returns, Fort Union, Nov. 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     74. Medical History, Fort Union, Nov.-Dec. 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     75. Ibid., Dec. 1876-Jan. 1877

     76. Ibid., Jan. 1877.

     77. Ibid., Jan. 1877; Special Orders No. 5, Jan. 9, 1877, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     78. Medical History, Fort Union, Jan.-April 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     79. Ibid., Sept. 1876-Feb. 1877 & Nov. 1877. On Dec. 1, 1877, Scorce's remains were interred beside his parents at Silver Brook Cemetery at Niles, Michigan. The local newspaper gave a detailed report and summarized the life of the deceased, including the following: "It will be recollected that Mr. Scorse entered the volunteer service before he was sixteen years of age. He served his country faithfully through the war; was taken prisoner at Winchester, escaping the horrors of Libby prison only by his utter prostration on the field of battle. Parolled, he performed duty in the Invalid Corps, and some years after the war, he entered the regular service. [At Fort Union] Officers and friends, indeed the whole garrison, were unusually kind to Mr. Scorse. For six weeks, by day and by night, their attentions were assiduous, delicate and fraternal. They nursed the body, they soothed the mind, they administered consolation to the soul fluttering over the borders of Paradise, and Mr. Scorse profoundly appreciated such kindness. His last words were, 'say goodbye to the good Doctor (Carvallo) for me.'" The Republican, Niles, Michigan, Dec. 6, 1877.

     80. Medical History, Fort Union, Jan.-Feb. 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     81. Ibid., Mar.-April 1877.

     82. Ibid., April 1877.

     83. Ibid., May & Nov. 1877.

     84. General Orders No. 35, May 5, 1877, & General Orders No. 38, May 25, 1877, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Medical History, Fort Union, May 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     85. Surg. Carvallo reported that smallpox had taken a heavy toll in the "Mexican" villages near Fort Union. "The parish priest of La Junta," he wrote, "informed post surgeon Dec. 11th that 134 deaths had occurred in his parish since Oct. 1st out of a population of one thousand souls and that 250 deaths had taken place during that period within the parish of Las Vegas, San Miguel Co., that contains about 3000 inhabitants. Upwards of 300 deaths are said to have occurred in and about the vicinity of Mora." Ibid., Dec. 1877.

     86. Ibid., Nov. 1877-Jan. 1878.

     87. Ibid., Nov. 1877-Mar. 1878 & Dec. 1878; and Special Orders No. 151, Dec. 16, 1877, Special Orders No. 5, Jan. 19, 1878, & Special Orders No. 21, Mar. 7, 1878, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA. See also chapter 8.

     88. Medical History, Fort Union, May-June & Oct. 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     89. Simpson was assigned as post chaplain at Sidney Barracks, Nebraska, October 6, 1877. Ibid., Oct. 1877. His sick leave did not end until December and it was not determined when he reported for duty at his new station.

     90. Ibid., June 1877-May 1878.

     91. Ibid., Sept. 1877.

     92. Ibid., Oct. 1877.

     93. Ibid., Jan.-Feb. & Dec. 1878.

     94. Ibid., April 1878-Dec. 1879. Of the 11 deaths recorded at Fort Union during 1878, 4 were soldiers and 7 were civilians.

     95. Ibid., May-Nov. 1878.

     96. Ibid., Nov.-Dec. 1878.

     97. Ibid., Mar. 1879.

     98. Darlis Miller, "Foragers, Army Women, and Prostitutes," New Mexico Women: Intercultural Perspectives, ed. by Joan M. Jensen and Darlis Miller (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986), 154-155.

     99. Medical History, Fort Union, April 1879, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     100. Ibid., May-1879-Mar. 1881.

     101. Ibid., June-Dec. 1881.

     102. Ibid., Mar. 1882-May 1883.

     103. Ibid., May 1884; and Consolidated Report, Fort Union Hospital, June 1884, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     104. Medical History, Fort Union, April 1884, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     105. Ibid., May 1884.

     106. Ibid.

     107. Ibid., 1883-1884. Hospital repairs were treated in chapters 6 and 7.

     108. An acting assistant surgeon was a civilian physician who was hired by the army at the rate of $125 per month in New Mexico. McKee to CO FU, May 6, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. This was necessary because the army was only authorized so many surgeons for the entire army. Contracts were subject to renewal and "annulment." A few contract surgeons were appointed to be army surgeons when openings occurred.

     109. Medical History, Fort Union, Oct. 1884, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     110. Ibid., July 1884-April 1885.

     111. Ibid., Jan. 1885.

     112. Ibid., Mar.-April, 1885.

     113. Ibid., May-Nov. 1885.

     114. Ibid., Jan.-Mar. 1886.

     115. Ibid., July-Oct. 1886.

     116. Ibid., Sept.-Oct. 1886; and Orders No. 77, Sept. 17, 1886, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     117. Orders No. 95, Oct. 14, 1886, ibid.

     118. Medical History, Fort Union, Jan.-Mar. 1887, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     119. Ibid., Mar.-Oct. 1887.

     120. Ibid., Oct.-Nov. 1887.

     121. Ibid., Jan.-Sept. 1888.

     122 Ibid., Sept. 1888-Mar. 1890.

     123. Foner, U.S. Soldier Between Two Wars, 40.

     124. Foner declared: "A highly controversial feature of the . . . Army—and one that drew the heaviest fire from critics both within and outside the service—was the administration of military justice. The Army court-martial system was not only considered unnecessarily cumbersome, but it was also condemned as being completely out of step with the democratic social and political life of the country." Ibid., 31.

     125. Ibid., 32-34.

     126. Because the punishment available to a garrison court was limited, post commanders often requested that cases involving serious crimes be tried by a general court-martial. In 1866 Fort Union CO Marshall requested that the case of Pvt. E. Snyder, Co. I, 5th Inf., who was accused of stealing $200 worth of flour from the post bakery while he was assigned to duty there, be tried by a general court-martial. This was not approved. Marshall appealed, arguing that the small punishment inflicted by a garrison court would not deter similar crimes. He argued that "other Post Bakers may be guilty of the same offense." He also noted that Pvt. Snyder had sold the flour and used the money to support "two mexican women" and that he played monte. He argued that Snyder's case required "a severe example." The disposition of Snyder's case was not located, Marshall to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 26, 1866, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     127. Revised Army Regulations, 1863, 496.

     128. Orders No. 6, HQ 9MD, Mar. 21, 1851, 9MD Orders, v. 35, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     129. AG Roger Jones to Carleton, June 14, 1852, LR, 9MD, M-1102, roll 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     130. Revised Army Regulations, 1863, 486-501. During the 1870s the articles of war were revised so the numbers were different, but the same offenses were listed.

     131. Ibid., 490-491, 497.

     132. Ibid., 29-30.

     133. Matthews Letters, June 17, 1870, FUNMA.

     134. Post Returns, Fort Union, May 1857, AGO RG 94, NA; and Lane to CO Co. B, 3rd Inf., no date, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     135. Lane to CO Co. A, RMR, June 17, 1857, ibid.

     136. DuBois to Post Adjt. FU, Mar. 31, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     137. Nichols to Fauntleroy, Sept. 30, 1855, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     138. Special Orders No. 148, Dec. 1, 1877, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     139. Jones to DePew, June 29, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Receipt of H. A. Swift, Warden, Missouri Penitentiary, Nov. 18, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 94, June 18, 1868, HQ DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA. In 1882 Capt. George K. Brady, 23rd Inf., with a guard comprised of 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, and 10 privates escorted a band of prisoners to Kansas. There were 3 Indian prisoners sent to Fort Riley and 10 military convicts sent to Fort Leavenworth Military Prison. Black to AAAG DNM, Nov. 2, 1882, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     140. Post Surgeon Peters objected to the shackles used on some prisoners, noting that they were rough and ill-fitting and caused disability. He urged that the quartermaster department supply smooth and proper-fitted shackles. This was done, but some officers claimed these were "by no means sufficient for the security of prisoners." Peters to Post Adjt. FU, June 14, 1871, & endorsements, & June 17, 1871, LR, FU, ibid.

     141. Gregg to AAAG DNM, May 6, 1871, LS, FU, ibid.

     142. Some cases have been considered in other chapters; for example, the case of Lt. Charles Speed, 5th Inf., may be found in connection with the material on Loma Parda in chapter 8.

     143. The records of garrison courts-martial were included in the post orders. The orders at Fort Union for the period from 1851 to 1857 were not located, and the orders from 1858 to 1891 contain the records of numerous trials. The records of general courts-martial were found in the department and district orders and in the files of the judge advocate general (JAG), RG 153, NA.

     144. Carleton to Sumner, Feb. 25, 1852, LR, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA; and C-M HH-161, Bvt. Major James H. Carleton, JAG, RG 153, NA. Although the official records of this case were filed as a court-martial, it was in fact a "court of inquiry" called at the request of Carleton to investigate and determine the cause of death of Private O'Brien. The court, ordered by Col. Sumner on Mar. 3, met from Mar. 10 to Mar. 24, 1852. The detail for the court included Bvt. Lt. Col. E. B. Alexander (president), Bvt. Major E. S. Sibley, 2d Lt. J. E. Maxwell, and Asst. Surgeon T. A. McParlin (Judge Advocate). The testimony of Carleton and several soldiers was recorded, providing the information by which the incident may be explained.

     145. Ibid.

     146. Ibid.

     147. Ibid.

     148. Ibid.

     149. Ibid.

     150. Carleton to Sumner, Nov. 9, 1852, LR, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     151. Sturgis to Carleton, Dec. 19, 1852, LS, 9MD, M-1072, reel 1, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     152. AG Cooper to Sumner, Dec. 8, 1852, LR, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Lane to Scott, Sept. 28, 1852, copy enclosed with ibid.

     153. See chapter 2.

     154. C-M HH-292, Bvt. Capt. George Sykes, JAG, RG 153, NA.

     155. Ibid.

     156. Dr. Byrne's summary of losses and Captain Bowen's list of losses may be found in chapter 2.

     157. C-M HH-292, Bvt. Capt. George Sykes, JAG, RG 153, NA.

     158. Ibid.

     159. Ibid.

     160. Ibid.

     161. Ibid.

     162 Ibid.

     163. Ibid.

     164. Ibid.

     165. Ibid.

     166. Ibid.

     167. Ibid.

     168. Ibid.

     169. Fauntleroy to Nichols, Nov. 3, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     170. Nichols to Byrne, Nov. 9, 1854, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 1, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     171. Orders No. 5, Mar. 22, 1857, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     172. Ibid.

     173. Heitman, Historical Register, I, 674.

     174, Orders No. 52, July 5, 1858, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     175, Orders No. 54, July 15, 1858, ibid.

     176. Orders No. 18, Dec. 9, 1858, ibid.

     177. Orders No. 17, Dec. 6, 1858, ibid.

     178. Orders No. 48, Sept. 7, 1859, ibid.

     179. Orders No. 27, Jan. 13, 1859, ibid.

     180. Simonson to Cooper, July 31, 1860, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     181. Ibid.

     182. Chapin to CO FU, June 9, 1862, LR, FU, ibid.

     183. General Orders No. 18, April 28, 1865, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     184. General Orders No. 21, May 13, 1865, ibid.

     185. General Orders No. 49, Oct. 30, 1865, ibid.

     186. Special Orders No. 32, Sept. 6, 1866, ibid.

     187. Ibid.

     188. Special Orders No. 62, Oct. 6, 1866, ibid.

     189. Circular, Dec. 8, 1866, ibid.

     190. Circular, Dec. 12, 1866, ibid.

     191. Special Orders, Mar. 8, 1867, ibid.

     192. Special Orders No. 41, June 2, 1878, ibid.

     193. Special Orders No. 30, Mar. 25, 1867, ibid.

     194. General Orders No. 1, April 11, 1867, ibid.

     195. Special Orders No. 111, Oct. 16, 1867, ibid.

     196. Cameron to Getty, Oct. 21, 1867, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     197. Brooke to AG USA, Mar. 30, 1868, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     198. Special Orders No. 42, June 3, 1878, Special Orders No. 68, Aug. 22, 1878, & Special Orders No. 69, Aug. 24, 1878, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     199. General Orders No. 32, Dec. 9, 1867, HQ Dept. of the Missouri, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     200. Matthews Letters, June 155, 1870, FUNMA.

     201. Orders No. 12, Jan. 20, 1873, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     202. Circular No. 14, Mar. 31, 1873, ibid.

     203. Orders No. 73, April 27, 1873, ibid.

     204. FU Orders, 1876, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     205. See chapter 9 for additional information about the depot and its relationship to the post.

     206. C-M QQ-448, Lt. Col. N. A. M. Dudley, JAG, RG 1553, NA.

     207. Ibid.

     208. Ibid.

     209. Ibid.

     210. Ibid.; and Heitman, Historical Register, I, 386.

     211. Robert M. Utley, Four Fighters of Lincoln County (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986), 42. Dudley deserves further study.

     212. Orders No. 118, Nov. 16, 1886, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     213. Ibid.; and Orders No. 125, Nov. 26, 1886, ibid.

     214. Orders No. 119, July 22, 1887, ibid.

     215. Orders No. 74, June 8, 1889, ibid.

     216. Orders No. 151, Nov. 22, 1890, ibid.

     217. See Foner, U.S. Soldier Between Two Wars.


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