FORT UNION
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CHAPTER THREE:
ENDNOTES

     1. The Bent's Fort or Raton Route was little used by Santa Fe traders before the Mexican War. Kearny's Army of the West followed it to New Mexico in 1846, and military and civilian travelers began to utilize it thereafter. Sumner's command followed it in 1851 and selected the site for Fort Union close to it. During and after 1851 a route connecting Fort Union to the main Santa Fe Trail or Cimarron Route was developed. During the Civil War, the Bent's Fort or Raton Route increased in popularity, becoming the major route of traffic on the Santa Fe Trail thereafter.

     2. William deBuys, Enchantment and Exploitation, 109, expressed it well: "Fort Union's military mission was essentially to force New Mexico's many hostile Indian groups (Navajo, Apache, Ute, Comanche, and Kiowa) into leaving both New Mexico and its vulnerable and vital lifeline, the Santa Fe Trail, alone."

     3. For an excellent overview of Indian-white relations, see Robert M. Utley, The Indian Frontier of the American West, 1846-1890 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984).

     4. Calvin Martin, "The Metaphysics of Writing Indian-White History," Ethnohistory, 26 (Winter 1981): 158. Tribal historian Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, The Jicarilla Apache Tribe: A History, 1846-1970 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983), 55, noted that relations between Anglos and the tribe most closely associated with Fort Union were "characterized by misunderstanding on both sides. . . . The Americans arrived with a set of preconceived notions about the Indians, a rigid set of practices for dealing with them, and an indifference toward their predicament. The superficial concern exhibited by the Americans was governed by the needs of the white population, whose overriding desire was to push the Indians out of the path of settlement and then keep them out at minimum expense."

     "On the other hand, the Jicarilla Apaches did not seem to discriminate among the settlers whom they raided. . . . The Jicarillas had their own way of 'sharing the wealth' as prescribed by their cultural deities and their notions of what was theirs by right since it came from the land assigned to them by the Supernaturals. This point of view ensured that the newcomers would not understand them. Moreover, their experience with the Spanish and Mexicans led them to believe that they would be able to carry on their way of life without much interference from the Americans. Here they made a gross misjudgment. When they recognized the error, it was much too late to deal with it effectively."

     5. deBuys, Enchantment and Exploitation, 112.

     6. Richard Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860 (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1973), p. 26.

     7. Almost all of a number of treaties negotiated with Indians in New Mexico during the 1850s were never approved by Congress, and the annuities promised the Indians (often including food for their subsistence, without which the Indians were compelled to resort to raiding for survival) were not funded by an economy-minded Congress. When the agreements were not kept, the Indians retaliated, in part for survival and in part for revenge for being deceived.

     8. Utley, Indian Frontier, 58.

     9. Orders No. 21, HQ 9MD, Aug. 2, 1851, 9MD Orders, v. 36, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     10. Sumner to Carleton, Aug. 1, 1851, LS, 9MD, v. 7, pp. 223-224, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     11. Sumner to Roger Jones, Oct. 24, 1851, Abel, Official Correspondence, 417.

     12. Fort Atkinson was officially abandoned in 1853 and temporarily reoccupied during the summer and early autumn of 1854. For a history of that outpost, see Leo E. Oliva, "Fort Atkinson on the Santa Fe Trail, 1850-1854," Kansas Historical Quarterly, XL (Summer 1974): 212-233.

     13. Orders No. 29, HQ 9MD, Sept. 18, 1851, 9MD Orders, v. 36, p. 44, USAC, RG 393, NA; James S. Calhoun to Luke Lea, Aug. 31, 1851, Annual Report of the Sec. of the Interior, House Ex. Doc. No. 2, 32 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 613), 462-463; and Calhoun to C. M. Conrad, Aug. 31, 1851, Abel, Official Correspondence, 413. On the Navajo campaign see Richard H. Dillon, ed., A Cannoneer in Navajo Country: Journal of Private Josiah M. Rice, 1851 (Denver: Old West Pub. Co., 1970).

     14. Calhoun to Lea, Oct. 1, 1851, House Ex. Doc. No. 2, 32 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 613), 466-467.

     15. John Greiner, "Private Letters of a Government Official in the Southwest," Journal of American History, 3 (Oct. 1909): 546.

     16. Sumner to William R. Shoemaker, Nov. 10, 1851, LS, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     17. Sumner to Calhoun, Nov. 10, 1851, Abel, Official Correspondence, 449-450.

     18. Preston Beck, Jas. E. Sabine, Elias Brevourt, & D. V. Whiting to Calhoun, Nov. 11, 1851, ibid., 453-454.

     19. See ibid., 447-457.

     20. Calhoun to Lea, April 6, 1852, Abel, Official Correspondence, 515; Greiner to Lea, July 31, 1852, ibid., 542-544.

     21. Sumner to Roger Jones, Jan. 27, 1852, LS, 9MD, RG 393, NA.

     22. Carleton to Sumner, Feb. 25, 1852, Misc. Records, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     23. Sumner to Carleton, Jan. 28, 1852, LS, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Feb. 1852, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     24. Carleton to Sumner, Feb. 25, 1852, Misc. Records, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA. During the 1860s, when Carleton was commanding officer of the Department of New Mexico, the Mescalero Apache reservation was established at the Bosque Redondo and, for a few years, the Navajo reservation was also there. Fort Sumner was established on the left bank of the Pecos River at Bosque Redondo on Nov. 30, 1862. It was abandoned as a military post on Aug. 30, 1869. After he disposed of the Maxwell Land Grant in 1870, Lucien Maxwell purchased Fort Sumner and lived there until his death in 1875. Billy the Kid was killed and buried at Fort Sumner in 1881. See Robert M. Utley, Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989).

     25. Post Returns, Fort Union, Feb. 1852, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Carleton to Sumner, Feb. 25, 1852, Misc. Records, 9MD, USAC RG 393, NA. The tragic story of the death of Pvt. O'Brien from excessive consumption of alcohol and severe discipline is included in chapter 10.

     26. Sumner to Calhoun, Mar. 21 & 30, 1852; Sumner to Brooks, Mar. 21 & April 3, 1852; Sumner to Jones, Mar. 22, 1852; Brooks to Calhoun, Mar. 27, 1852; Calhoun to Brooks, Mar. 27 & 28, 1852; Calhoun to Sumner, Mar. 28, 1852; IS & LR, 9MD, USAC RG 393, NA, all printed in Abel, Official Correspondence, 492-493, 507-510.

     27. General Orders No. 26, HQ 9MD, April 3, 1852, 9MD Orders, USAC RG 393, NA.

     28. General Orders No. 23, HQ 9MD, March 28, 1852, ibid.

     29. Katie Bowen to Mother, Aug. 1, 1852, Bowen Letters, AC reported: "The Indians are making threats to destroy trains if government dont send out presents to them and for fear of some mischief, Col Sumner has ordered Maj Carleton to go on with his company of dragoons and clear the way for trains and the mail. He will start on the 3d with the mail party and several trains returning in all about 100 men." A few weeks later she noted, "Maj. Carleton and command have returned from their trip to Arkansas [River] without having met any trouble. The new Gov. Dr. Lane of St. Louis, arrived with Maj. Carleton." Katie Bowen to Father & Mother, Sept. 1, 1852, ibid.

     30. Post Returns, Fort Union, April-Oct. 1852, AGO, RG 94, NA; Carleton to Sumner, Aug. 30, 1852, LR, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Carleton to Sumner, Oct. 22, 1852, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     31. General Orders No. 24, HQ 9MD, Mar. 30, 1852, 9MD Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     32. Prucha, Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 91.

     33. Greiner to Lea, July 31, 1852, G41/1852, NM, LR, OIA, RG 75, NA.

     34. W. T. H. Brooks to Sumner, Aug. 30, 1852, LR, 9MD, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     35. See above, pp. 90-91, 96.

     36. Greiner to Lea, June 30, 1852, Abel, Official Correspondence, 540.

     37. Sumner to AG, September 24, 1852, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 32 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 659), pt. 1, p. 26.

     38. Greiner to Lane, Sept. 30, 1852, N70/1852, NM, LR, OIA, RG 75, NA; Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 690), pt. 1, p. 432; Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 28, 33 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 695), 1-5; Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 746), pt. 1, p. 374; Santa Fe Weekly Gazette, Dec. 31, 1853; and A. B. Bender, "Frontier Defense in the Territory of New Mexico, 1846-1853," NMHR, 9 (July 1934): 270-271.

     39. Orders No. 23, HQ 9MD, June 6, 1853, 9MD Orders, USAC RG 393, NA; and John Garland to Lorenzo Thomas, Oct. 29, 1853, LS, 9MD, v. 9, p. 75, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     40. Carleton to Blake, Aug. 12, 1853, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     41. James A. Bennett, "A Dragoon in New Mexico," NMHR, 22 (April 1947): 140; and Nichols to Cooke, Jan. 18, 1854, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     42. Garland to Gov. of New Mexico, Jan. 18, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, p. 115, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     43. Nichols to Cooke, Jan. 18, 1854, LR, FU, USAC RG 393, NA.

     44. Cooke to Nichols, Jan. 26 & 29, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. The number of buffalo hunters on the plains must have been considerable. A few weeks later Cooke wrote from Fort Union that "a vast number of Buffalo hunters with many loaded wagons passed here from the prairie yesterday." Cooke to Nichols, Mar. 14, 1854, ibid. The revenge for the killing of the Indians came in May.

     45. Cooke to Bell, Feb. 13, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Cooke to Nichols, Feb. 20, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Nichols to Cooke, Mar. 12, 1854, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     46. Bell to Cooke, Mar. 7, 1854, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     47. Ibid.; and Cooke to Nichols, Mar. 8, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Garland to Thomas, Mar. 29, 1854, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 747), pt. 2, p. 33; Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1854, AGO, RG 94, NA; David Meriwether to George Manypenny, Mar. 17, 1854, LR, N-245-1854, OIA, RG 75, NA; Albert G. Brackett, History of the United States Cavalry (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1865), 135; and Theo. F. Rodenbough, comp., From Everglade to Canon with the Second Dragoons (New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1875), 176-178. It is interesting to note that a similar situation in 1854 far from Fort Union, near Fort Laramie in present Wyoming, ended differently. There a command of 30 soldiers with two cannons, under Brevet Second Lieutenant John L Grattan, Sixth Infantry, also investigated the loss of some livestock, demanded the surrender of the guilty parties, and killed a Sioux chief. In that incident on August 19, 1854, however, all but one of the soldiers was killed by the Indians, and the one died of wounds a few days later. Robert M. Utley, Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865 (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 113-114.

     48. Cooke to Nichols, Mar. 8, 1854, LS, FU, USAC RG 393, NA. Chico Velasquez died during the summer of 1854 when a smallpox epidemic killed many Utes. His voice of moderation and friendship with non-Indians had stood against the more belligerent Chief Blanco. Ka-ni-ache, also a moderate in relations with whites, succeeded Chico Velasquez. The smallpox epidemic of 1854 may have made the Utes more hostile, for some of them apparently believed that trade blankets they had received from the Bureau of Indian Affairs were infested with the disease. Morris F. Taylor, "Campaigns Against the Jicarilla Apache, 1855," NMHR, 45 (April 1970): 121.

     49. Cooke to Bell, Mar. 9 & 23, 1854, Cooke to Blake, Mar. 11, 1854, Cooke to Nichols, Mar. 14, 1854, & Cooke to Sturgis, Mar. 22, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Cooke, Mar. 12, 1854, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Cooke to Nichols, Mar. 22, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Garland to Thomas, Mar. 29, 1854, LR, G-177-1854, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1854, AGO, RG 94, NA. It was later learned from the contract herder, a Mr. Mitchell, that 144 cattle were stolen by the Indians. Macrae to Nichols, April 21, 1854. LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     50. Cooke to Blake, Mar. 19, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Messervy to Carson, April 7, 1854, LR, N-245-1854, OIA, RG 75, NA.

     51. Messervy to Manypenny, Mar. 31, 1854, LR, N-245-1854, ibid.

     52. Messervy to Manypenny, April 29, 1854, LR, N-269-1854, ibid.

     53. Cooke to Nichols, May 24, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Garland to Thomas, April 1, 1854, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 747), pt. 2, pp. 33-34; Brackett, United States Cavalry, 135; and Rodenbough, From Everglade to Canon, 178.

     54. See Hamilton Gardner, "Philip St. George Cooke and the Apache, 1854," NMHR, 28 (April 1953), 115-132; and Morris F. Taylor, "Campaigns Against the Jicarillas, 1854," NMHR, 44 (Oct. 1969): 269-291. Acting Gov. Messervy, who was also superintendent of Indian affairs in New Mexico, wrote to Commissioner of Indian Affairs Manypenny regarding the Jicarillas: "But as they have commenced this war I am determined unless otherwise instructed from your Department to listen to no terms of peace from them, until they shall have received that chastisement which they have for so many years merited, and shall have atoned for the outrages they have for so long a period perpetrated upon our citizens." He concluded that "the best interests of the Territory, and the highest dictates of humanity, demand their extinction, or their settlement in pueblos." Messervy to Manypenny, April 29, 1854, LR, N-269-1854, OIA, RG 75, NA.

     55. Garland to Cooke, April 7, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 158-159, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Carson to Messervy, April 12, 1854, AC.

     56. Garland to Cooke, April 7, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 158-159, USAC, RG 393, NA; John W. Dunn to Messervy, April 14, 1854, & Carson to Messervy, April 19, 1854, AC; James H. Quinn, "Note of a Spy Company under Col. Cooke, April 3 to May 2, 1854," MS, Ritch Collection, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA; Garland to Thomas, April 30, 1854, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 747), pt. 2, pp. 34-35; Cooke to Nichols, May 24 & June 6, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Rodenbough, From Everglade to Canon, 178-180; and Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 48. According to Ute Chief Chico Velasquez, Jicarilla Chief Chacon was not involved in the fight with Lieutenant Davidson on Mar. 30. When he learned of that battle, Chacon "stated that it was not his desire or wish to fight the americans, but that his people had now made war upon them, and he supposed he must either fight or die. With these conclusions Chacon joined his tribe and was in the fight on the 8th instant." Carson to Messervy, April 19, 1854, AC.

     57. Quinn, "Note of a Spy Company under Major Carleton, May 23 to June 12, 1854."; Carleton to Cooke, June 5, 1854, & Cooke to Nichols, June 7, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Carson to Messervy, June 12, 1854, AC; Garland to Thomas, June 30, 1854, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 747), pt. 2, p. 36; and Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 49-50. Carleton and Carson cooperated here, as they would on other occasions, with respect for each other's talents. On the day that the soldiers caught up with the Jicarillas, Carson had told Carleton that morning that they would find the Indians by two o'clock. Carleton promised Carson, if his prediction came true, to buy him one of the finest beaver felt hats that could be purchased in New York. The attack on the Jicarilla camp occurred at 2:00 p.m. Carson later received the hat, sent to him at Taos from New York, with the following inscription inside the band: "At 2 o'clock Kit Carson from Major Carleton." Edwin L. Sabin, Kit Carson Days, 1809-1868, 2 vols. (New York: Press of the Pioneers, 1935), 665.

     58. Messervy to Brig. Gen. of the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Division of the Militia of the Territory of New Mexico, May 27, 1854, & Messenvy to Cooke, May 30, 1854, AC; Cooke to Nichols, June 6, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Garland to Thomas, June 30, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 200-201, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     59. Ransom to Maxwell, June 3, 1854, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     60. Ibid.

     61. Orders No. 13, HQ FU, July 1, 1854, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA; Macrae to Sykes, June 29, 1854, & Cooke to Cooper, July 1, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Sykes to Cooke, July 2, 1854, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Jose G. Gallegos & Miguel Sena y Romero to Messervy, July 3, 1854, Bradford L. Prince Papers, NMSRCA.

     62. Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 33 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 747), pt. 2, p. 36; Garland to Thomas, June 30, July 30, Aug. 30, Sept. 30, & Oct. 31, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 200-201, 206-207, 212-213, 227, 240, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept. 1854, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 51-52.

     63. Fauntleroy to Nichols, Dec. 10, 1854, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Ewell, Dec. 21, 1854, & Nichols to Miles, Dec. 26, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 250, 257-258; and Garland to Thomas, Dec. 31, 1854, ibid., 260-261.

     64. Laws of the Legislative Assembly of New Mexico, Dec. 27-29, 1854, pp. 115-117, 119, 121.

     65. Nichols to Fauntleroy, Jan. 11, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 265, USAC, RG 393, NA. The Ute participation in this raid may have been retaliation for what they believed was the distribution of blankets infested with smallpox and the death of many members of the tribe from that disease the previous summer. Taylor, "Campaigns Against the Jicarilla Apache, 1855," 121.

     66. Nichols to Fauntleroy, Jan. 11, 1855, Nichols to Blake, Jan. 12, 1855, Nichols to Brooks, Jan. 12, 1855, & Nichols to Carleton, Jan. 13, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 265-266, 268, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     67. Fauntleroy to Nichols, Jan. 18 & 22, 1855, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Garland to Thomas, Jan. 31, 1855, & Ewell to Nichols, Feb. 10, 1855, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 811), pt. 2, pp. 56-57, 59-61; and Garland to Cooper, Feb. 2, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, p. 287, USAC, RG 393, NA. Fort Stanton, named to honor the slain captain, was established on the Rio Bonita on May 4, 1855, to help control the Mescalero Apaches. Orders No. 8, HQ DNM, May 4, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 36, p. 333, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Prucha, Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 109.

     68. Fauntleroy to Nichols, Feb. 9, 1855, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Carson to Meriwether, Feb. 28 & Mar. 1, 1855, LR, N-413-1855 & N-434-1855, OIA, RG 75, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Jan.-Feb. 1855, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     69. Garland to Meriwether, Jan. 22, 1855, & Garland to Thomas, Jan. 31, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 276, 281-282, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 12, HQ DNM, Feb. 5, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 27, p. 140, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 52-53.

     70. Jacqueline Dorgan Meketa, ed., Legacy of Honor: The Life of Rafael Chacon, a Nineteenth-Century New Mexican (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986), 100.

     71. Ibid.

     72. Nichols to Fauntleroy, Feb. 6, 1855, & Sturgis to Fauntleroy, Feb. 21, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 292-293, 296-297, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Garland to Thomas, Mar. 31, 1855, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 811), pt. 2, p. 63. Also in March another campaign, led by Colonel D. S. Miles and including Captain Carleton and his company of dragoons, was launched against the Mescaleros in southeastern New Mexico. Orders No. 3, HQ DNM, Mar. 14, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 36, p. 329, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     73. Of this engagement Chacon wrote, "When the Indians started to retreat and run away, I was mounted on a mule, and a lieutenant, who seemed somewhat timid, kept lagging behind and reining in his horse, a very lively animal that was chafing with excitement. When I saw that he was killing time on purpose and vacillating, I said to him, 'Let me have that horse to follow the enemy, you coward, or I will kill you.' He dismounted and gave me his horse which I mounted and let him have my mule. The result of the battle was the killing of several Indians and the capture of several others. That night the captives escaped from us and fled." Meketa, Legacy of Honor, 102.

     74. Garland to Thomas, Mar. 31, 1855, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 811), pt. 2, p. 63; and Carson to Meriwether, April 11, 1855, LR, N-434-1855, OIA, RG 75, NA. See Taylor, "Campaigns Against the Jicarilla Apache, 1855," 119-136.

     75. Fauntleroy to Sturgis, April 30 & May 5 & 10, 1855, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 811), pt. 2, pp. 64-69; Garland to Thomas, May 31, 1855, ibid., 63-64; and Post Returns, Fort Union, July 1855, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     76. The Cucharas River flows into the Huerfano, which is a tributary of the Arkansas River.

     77. During this battle, according to Sgt. Chacon, "a soldier belonging to my company scalped an Indian who had a very luxuriant growth of hair. When we had made our camp he took the scalp to Colonel St. Vrain, and this officer became indignant and reprimanded him severely because he thought he had killed a woman. Then the soldier went back to where the dead Indian lay and castrated him and brought the parts to the colonel, tied to a stick, and the colonel was satisfied although surprised at such an unusual method of proving the dead Indian was a man and not a woman." Meketa, Legacy of Honor, 103. Some of the Jicarilla prisoners escaped before they were taken to Fort Union, but two women and seven children were delivered there early in May. One of the women prisoners died of dysentery although "she had received every kindness & attention which circumstances allowed." The other Jicarilla woman and one child escaped, one child was sent to Santa Fe, and four of the Jicarilla children were still at Fort Union in early September. Two Utah girl captives were also taken to Fort Union; one died at the post in August and the other was sent to Agent Carson at Taos in September. All prisoners were returned by terms of the treaties signed in September. Whittlesey to Sturgis, May 26, 1855, & Post Adjt. FU to Carson, Sept. 2, 1855, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Orders No. 24, HQ DNM, Sept. 14, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 36, p. 342, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     78. Whittlesey to Sturgis, May 1, 1855, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Garland to Thomas, May 31 & June 30, 1855, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 811), pt. 2, pp. 63-64, 70-71; Easton to Cunningham, June 17, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, p. 360, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Orders No. 19, HQ DNM, Aug. 6, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 36, pp. 338-339, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     79. Garland to Thomas, July 31, 1855, & Mar. 31, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 380-381, 467-468, USAC, RG 393, NA; Meriwether to Manypenny, Sept. 15, 1855, LR, N-535-1855, OIA, RG 75, NA; Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 810), pt. 1, pp. 506-512; and Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 53-54, 56-59. A peace-treaty had been signed with the Mescaleros in June, and it was also rejected. Garland to CO Fort Stanton, June 24, 1855, & Garland to Thomas, June 30, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 364-365, 367-368, USAC, RG 393, NA. Colonel B. L. E. Bonneville, commanding the Dept. of New Mexico in February 1857, stated: "A fruitful cause of difficulty between the powerful tribes within the Territory, and the inhabitants, exists in the fact, that treaties have been made with all the tribes and not one has yet been ratified. This leaves the Red man, his tribe, and all his interests, without rights, reservation or protection." Bonneville to Thomas, Feb. 28, 1857, ibid., v. 10, pp. 89-90.

     80. Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 60.

     81. Meriwether to Manypenny, May 28 & Sept. 18, 1855, LR, N-439-1855 & N-527-1855, OIA, RG 75, NA; Fauntleroy to Nichols & Fauntleroy to Johnston, Sept. 20, 1855, & Fauntleroy to Nichols, Sept. 26, 1855, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 94, HQ DNM, Sept. 22, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 27, p. 206, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Brooks, Sept. 27, 1855, & Nichols to Carleton, Sept. 30, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 403, 407, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Garland to Thomas, July 31, Sept. 30, & Oct. 31, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 380-381, 408,423, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     82. Garland to Thomas, Mar. 3 & Mar. 31, 1856, ibid., 458, 467-468; Fauntleroy to Nichols, Mar. 8, 1856, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     83. Garland to Thomas, Mar. 31, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 9, p. 468, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     84. Post Adjt. FU to Johnston, Mar. 24, 1856, & Post Adjt. FU to Nichols, Mar. 31, 1856, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     85. Garland to Thomas, June 30 & July 31, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 495-496, 507-508, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     86. Loring to Nichols, Oct. 20, 1856, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Nichols to Loring, Oct. 27, 1856, & Bonneville to Thomas, Oct. 31, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 31, 33-34, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     87. Nichols to Carleton & Ewell, Sept. 12, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 14, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Garland to Thomas, Sept. 30, 1856, ibid., 19-20.

     88. Charles L. Kenner, A History of New Mexico-Plains Indian Relations (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969), 121.

     89. Hatch to Garland, Sept. 24, 1856, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Edson, Oct. 3, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 21, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 132, HQ DNM, Oct. 10, 1856, DNM Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     90. Elliott to Nichols, Oct. 31, 1856, & Loring endorsement, Nov. 2, 1856, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     91. Elliott to Nichols, Nov. 11, 1857, ibid.; Post Returns, Hatch's Ranch, Nov. 1856, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Nichols to Loring, Dec. 26, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 52, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     92. "Wagon Road—Fort Smith to Colorado River," House Ex. Doc. No. 42, 36 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 1048), 30; and Kenner, History of New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 122-123. In 1861 Hatch leased the facilities to the army for $1.00 per year plus $5.00 per month per room used by the troops, a fairly lucrative arrangement.

     93. Post Returns, Hatch's Ranch, Nov. 1856-Feb. 1857, & Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1857, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     94. Lydia Spencer Lane, I Married a Soldier (1893, reprint; Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987), 5, 53.

     95. Ibid. The commander at Hatch's Ranch was directed, on Mar. 14, 1857, to ship the public property to Fort Union and transfer the garrison as soon as practicable. Jones to Elliott, Mar. 14, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. The troops arrived at Fort Union on Mar. 22. Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1857, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     96. Barton H. Barbour, ed., Reluctant Frontiersman: James Ross Larkin on the Santa Fe Trail, 1856-57 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990), 83. For the fascinating story of the Bents and Bent's forts, see David Lavender, Bent's Fort (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1954) and Nolie Mumey, Old Forts and Trading Posts of the West: Bent's Old Fort and Bent's New Fort on the Arkansas River (Denver: Artcraft Press, 1956).

     97. Barbour, Reluctant Frontiersman, 83-84, 90.

     98. Bent to St. Vrain, Nov. 1, 1856, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. For some reason this letter is misfiled at the National Archives with the Fort Union Letters Received, 1862.

     99. Ibid.

     100. Nichols to Loring, Nov. 22, 1856, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 38-39; USAC, RG 393, NA.

     101. It is not clear if McRae inspected the subsistence stores at Bent's New Fort, but those supplies were shipped to Fort Union in March 1857. There a board of survey inspected the stores and found most of them were spoiled or damaged and that others were simply missing. The board assigned no cause for deficiencies and attributed the spoilage to the fact that "it appears that these stores have been at Bents Fort for some time." Proceedings of a Board of Survey, Fort Union, Mar. 24, 1857, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     102. Roger Jones to Elliott, & Loring to CO Cantonment Burgwin, Nov. 27, 1856, & Loring to AAG DNM, Jan. 9, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Circular, HQ DNM, Jan. 13, 1857, DNM Orders, v. 36, p. 381, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Bonneville to Thomas, Jan. 31, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 72-73, USAC, RG 393, NA. Loring was promoted to rank of colonel on Dec. 30, 1856. Heitman, Historical Register, II, 642.

     103. Nichols to Loring, Jan. 14, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 61-62, USAC, RG 393, NA. In this letter Bonneville had Nichols state that "there appears to be no necessity for an expedition against the Kiowas."

     104. Special Orders No. 14, HQ DNM, Jan. 29, 1857, DNM Orders, v. 27, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Nichols to Loring, Jan. 29, 1857, & Bonneville to Thomas, Jan. 31, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 69-70, 72-73, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     105. Jones to Ransom, Feb. 2, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, Feb. 1857, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Bonneville to Thomas, Feb. 28, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, 89-90, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     106. For the story of this frontiersman, see Howard Louis Conard, Uncle Dick Wootton: The Pioneer Frontiersman of the Rocky Mountain Region (1959, reprint; Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). Wootton recalled, "I went down to Fort Barclay in the winter of 1856 and commenced getting things ready for a trip to the States as soon as the spring opened." Ibid., 303. This biography contains much information about freighting on the plains.

     107. Loring to Doyle &c, Feb. 23, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     108. Conard, Uncle Dick Wootton, 339.

     109. To the northeast of New Mexico Territory, during 1857, Colonel Edwin V. Sumner commanded the Cheyenne Expedition which resulted in the first engagement between U. S. troops and Cheyennes, on the South Solomon River in northern Kansas. That punitive expedition had some effect on Indians along the Santa Fe Trail and in northeastern New Mexico. See William Y. Chalfant, Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers: The 1857 Expedition and the Battle of Solomon's Fork (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989).

     110. Orders No. 3, HQ DNM, Feb. 11, 1857, DNM Orders, v. 38A, USAC, RG 393, NA. Colonel Loring, several members of his staff, Assistant Surgeon Jonathan Letterman, and 125 officers and mounted riflemen left Fort Union for the Gila Apache Expedition during April 15-19, 1857. Llewellyn Jones to Cooper, April 20, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     111. The officers and troops from Fort Union who participated in the Gila Apache Expedition were carried on the post returns of Fort Union throughout that campaign and listed on "detached service." Post Returns, Fort Union, April-Sept. 1857, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     112. Llewellyn Jones to Nichols, May 6, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     113 Orders No. 7, HQ DNM, May 12, 1857, DNM Orders, v. 38A, USAC, RG 393, NA. Garland to Thomas, June 30, 1857, & Nichols to Bonneville, July 26, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 121, 126-127, USAC, RG 393, NA. Colonel Loring, after turning over command of the Gila Expedition, became commanding officer at Fort Defiance to help keep the Navajos under control. Special Orders No. 64, HQ DNM, June 26, 1857, DNM Orders, v. 38A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Nichols to Loring, July 1, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 121-122, USAC, RG 393, NA. At the conclusion of the Gila Expedition, Colonel Loring and many of the mounted riflemen who had been drawn from Fort Union returned to duty at that post. Loring resumed command of Fort Union on Sept. 27, 1857, and the troops returned on Oct. 3. Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept.-Oct. 1857, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Loring to Nichols, Oct. 12, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     114. Llewellyn Jones to Nichols, July 7 & July 10, 1857, ibid.

     115. Mail coaches departed from Independence and Santa Fe twice a month in 1857, scheduled to leave Santa Fe on the first and fifteenth of each month.

     116. McNally to Lane, & Loring to Nichols, Oct. 1, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     117. It is possible the rider was sent from Col. Sumner, commander of the Cheyenne Expedition. Lt. Col. Johnston had been ordered to cooperate with Sumner's campaign, but that was not possible while surveying the Kansas boundary. Robert M. Utley, Frontiersmen in Blue: The United States Army and the Indian, 1848-1865 (New York: Macmillan, 1967), 122; and Chalfant, Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers, 62-63,67. The southern boundary of Kansas Territory bordered on New Mexico Territory and extended to the continental divide in present Colorado. Both major routes of the Santa Fe Trail crossed that border. Colorado Territory was not created until 1861. See Homer Socolofsky and Huber Self, Historical Atlas of Kansas, 2nd ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988), 20,22.

     118. Loring to Nichols, Oct. 2, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     119. Ibid.; and Loring to Frank DeLisle, Oct. 2, 1857, & Llewellyn Jones to Nichols, Oct. 4, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. It became common practice for the mail escort to move to the Canadian River in advance of the mail because the mail coaches could travel faster than the troops. Thus the mail would not be slowed down to the pace of the escort until reaching that point.

     120. William B. Lane, "Frontier Service in the Fifties," The United Service, NS X (Dec. 1893): 526.

     121. Ibid., 526-527.

     122. Ibid., 527.

     123. Nichols to Loring, Oct. 11, 1857, v. 10, p. 152, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and McNally to Edson, Oct. 16, 1857, & Loring to Nichols, Oct. 21, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     124. Loring to Nichols, Oct. 30, 1857, ibid.; Garland to Thomas, Oct. 31 & Nov. 14, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 157-159, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     125. Special Orders No. 136, HQ DNM, Dec. 6, 1857, DNM Orders, v. 38A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Nichols to CO Beck's Ranch & CO Hatch's Ranch, Dec. 8, 1857, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 170, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     126. Lane, "Frontier Service in the Fifties," 529.

     127. Ibid., 529-530.

     128. Ibid., 530-531.

     129. Ibid., 531-536.

     130. Garland to Thomas, Aug. 8, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 241, USAC, RG 393, NA. A military camp, which later became Fort Bascom, was established near the mouth of Ute Creek in 1862.

     131. Special Orders No. 33 & 34, HQ DNM, Mar. 31 & April 5, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 134-135, USAC, RG 393, NA. It was not clear if any troops were stationed at Beck's Ranch after March 1858.

     132 Loring to Nichols, Dec. 23, 1857, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Loring, Jan. 18, 1858, & Garland to Cooper, Jan. 30, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 171, 179, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1857-Jan. 1858, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     133. Nichols to Reeve, Nichols to Bonneville, & Nichols to Chandler, Jan. 20, 1858, Nichols to Loring, Jan. 29, 1858, Garland to Cooper, Jan. 30, 1858, & Garland to Thomas, Jan. 31, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 172-173, 177, 179-180, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Loring to Nichols, Jan. 26, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     134. Loring to Nichols, Jan. 25, 1858, & Loring to Cooper, Jan. 11, 1858, ibid.; and Nichols to Loring, Jan. 18 & Feb. 5, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 171, 182-183, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     135. Loring to Nichols, Feb. 23, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DuBois to Tilford, Feb. 23, 1858, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. The entire story of this mail escort from Fort Union is found in DuBois Journal, Feb. 26, 1858. Details of troop activities on that particular escort duty are presented in chapter 4.

     136. Nichols to Loring, Mar. 8, 1858, ibid.; and Loring to Nichols, Mar. 18, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     137. Loring to Easton, Mar. 9, 1858, ibid.; and Garland to Cooper, Mar. 14, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 199, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     138. Nichols to Shoemaker, Mar. 19, 1858, ibid.; and Loring to Nichols, Mar. 29, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     139. Loring to AAG DNM, Mar. 31, 1858, ibid.; Nichols to CO RMR in the Field near Red River, April 17, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 217, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Baker to Nichols, April 28, 1858, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     140. Ibid.

     141. Loring to AAG DNM, Mar. 31, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     142. Baker to Nichols, April 28, 1858, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     143. Garland to Thomas, May 1, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 225-226, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     144. Johnston to AAG DNM, Jan. 10, 1858, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     145. Ibid.; Special Orders No. 20, HQ DNM, Feb. 16, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 117-118, USAC, RG 393, NA; Garland to Thomas, Mar. 1, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 194, USAC, RG 393, NA; and McDowell to Garland, Mar. 1, 1858, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     146. Special Orders No. 30, HQ DNM, Mar. 22, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 131-133, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Loring, Mar. 22, 1858, & Garland to Thomas, Mar. 31, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 202, 209-210, USAC, RG 393, NA; Loring to Marcy, Mar. 24, 1858, Loring to L C. Easton, Mar. 29, 1858, Loring to Nichols, April 1, 1858, Loring to McDowell, April 4, 1858, & Lindsay to McDowell, April 10, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Nichols to CO FU, May 24, 1858, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     147. Loring to AAG DNM, June 11, 1858, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DuBois Journal, March 10-June 11, 1858.

     148. See Nels Anderson, Desert Saints: The Mormon Frontier in Utah (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942), 183-185.

     149. Loring to AAG USA, Sept. 15, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept. 1858, AGO, RG 94, NA; and DuBois Journal, June 11-Sept. 13, 1858.

     150. Special Orders No. 64 & No. 73, HQ DNM, Aug. 6 & Aug. 23, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 154-155, 159-160, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to W. T. H. Brooks, Aug. 20, 1858, Nichols to Shoemaker, Aug. 21, 1858, & Nichols to Electus Backus, Aug. 22, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 246-248, USAC, RG 393, NA; and D. S. Miles to Cooper, Sept. 3, 1858, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 35 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 975), pt. 2, p. 298.

     151. Nichols to Bonneville, Sept. 2, 1858, & Bonneville to Thomas, Sept. 22, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 253, 260, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 80, 81, & 83, HQ DNM, Sept. 14 & Sept. 19, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 162-166, USAC, RG 393, NA; General Orders No. 6, HQ DNM, Sept. 15, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 36, p. 414, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 2, HQ FU, Sept. 14, 1858, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept. 1858, AGO, RG 94, NA. When Garland's command became stranded on the Arkansas River for want of provisions for the horses, as noted in the previous chapter, the express rider who returned to Fort Union for assistance was caught by Kiowas who held him prisoner from one afternoon until the next morning. They took his provisions, pistol, spurs, and saddle girth before turning him loose, and they shot at him with his pistol as he rode away. The messenger believed the Kiowas were prevented from killing him by the approach of someone. Loring to AAG DNM, Nov. 11, 1858, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     152. Bonneville to Thomas, Oct. 1, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 268-269, USAC, RG 393, NA. Bonneville reiterated this position at the end of March 1859, declaring that the absence of protected reserves left the Indians to "scatter, . . . roaming from one end to the other of the Territory. This state of things must continue," he concluded, "until reservations are laid off and each particular tribe restricted to limits, where, under the care of their agents, they can be attended to and protected from improper trade and influences." Bonneville to Thomas, Mar. 31, 1859, ibid., 331.

     153. Bonneville to Loring, Oct. 1, 1858, & Bonneville to Backus, Oct. 3, 1858, ibid., 269-271; Special Orders No. 91, HQ DNM, Oct. 1, 1858, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 169-170, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct. 1858-Jan. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA. At the conclusion of the conflict, only two of the three companies of mounted riflemen were sent back to Fort Union. General Orders No. 11, HQ DNM, Dec. 25, 1858, DNM Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     154. National Intelligencer, Nov. 28, 1858; and J. S. Simonson to J. D. Wilkins, Dec. 8, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     155. Bonneville to Thomas, Nov. 14, & Dec. 4, 1858, & Bonneville to Miles, Nov. 21, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 288-290,296, USAC, RG 393, NA; General Orders No. 11, HQ DNM, Dec. 25, 1858, DNM Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA. The basic records of the Navajo campaign may be found in the Annual Report of the Secretary of War, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 2, 36 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 1024), v. 2, pt. 1, pp. 258-291.

     156. Beale had been part of the experiment with camels in the Southwest, using them in 1857 to help lay out a road from New Mexico to California. Beale was assigned to work on the route from Arkansas through New Mexico to the Colorado River in 1858. W Turrentine Jackson, Wagon Roads West (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), 245-256; "Wagon Road—Fort Smith to Colorado River," House Ex. Doc. No. 42, 36 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 1048), 1-91; and Grant Foreman, "Survey of a Wagon Road from Fort Smith to the Colorado River," Chronicles of Oklahoma, 12 (March 1934): 74-96.

     157. Wilkins to Loring, Sept. 30 & Nov. 9, 1858, & Wilkins to CO Fort Stanton, Sept. 30, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 266-267, 287, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 12, HQ FU, Nov. 16, 1858, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Loring to AAG DNM, Jan. 20, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     158. Loring to AAG DNM, Nov. 6, 1858, & Jan. 20, 1859, ibid.; and Wilkins to Loring, Nov. 9, 1858, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 287, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     159. Wilkins to Whiting, Nov. 23, 1858, Wilkins to Loring, Jan. 6, 1859, & Bonneville to Thomas, Jan. 16, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 291, 302, 306-307, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 29, HQ FU, Jan. 15, 1859, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Loring to AAG DNM, Jan. 20, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; "Wagon Road—Fort Smith to Colorado River," House Ex. Doc. No. 42, 36 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 1048), 9-20, 30-33.

     160. Wilkins to Loring, Jan. 16, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 307, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Loring to AAG DNM, Jan. 20, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     161. DuBois Journal, Jan. 27, 1859.

     162. Ibid., Feb. 1, 1859.

     163. Loring to AAG DNM, Feb. 4, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DuBois Journal, Feb. 1, 1859.

     164. Loring to AAG DNM, Feb. 8, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DuBois Journal, Feb. 10, 1859.

     165. Loring to AAG DNM, Feb. 8, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; DuBois Journal, Feb. 10, 1859; and Wilkins to J. M. Whitlock and Manuel Gonzales, Feb. 28, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 324, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     166. Special Orders No. 20, HQ DNM, Feb. 1, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; Loring to AAAG DNM, Feb. 15, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; DuBois Journal, April 5, 1859; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar.-April 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     167. Loring to Whitlock, Mar. 3, 1859, & Loring to AAG DNM, Mar. 5, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     168. A fanega was approximately two and one-half bushels.

     169. Bonneville to Thomas, April 30, 1859, & Wilkins to Davis, May 4, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 336-340, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Claiborne to Wilkins, Aug. 9, 1859, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 2, 36 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 1024), v. 2, pt. 1, p. 330.

     170. Bonneville to Thomas, April 30, 1859, Wilkins to Claiborne, May 14, 1859, & Wilkins to Davis, July 5, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 336-338, 341-342, 349-350, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 76, HQ DNM, May 14, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; Claiborne to Wilkins, July 4, 1859, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Morris to W. K. Van Bokkelen, July 9, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     171. Special Orders No. 76 & 82, HQ DNM, May 14 & June 10, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; Wilkins to Simonson, June 10, 1859, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Morris to Wilkins, June 7, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; DuBois Journal, June 15-Dec. 9, 1859; and Post Returns, Fort Union, June-Oct. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     172. Wilkins to Duncan, Wilkins to Valdez, & Wilkins to CO FU, July 9, 1859, Wilkins to Valdez, July 16, 1859, & Wilkins to Duncan, July 17, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 352, 354, 358, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Morris to Wilkins, July 13, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. Because so many soldiers were needed at Fort Union to work at the subdepot, storing and reshipping supplies, Capt. Morris could provide only 50 enlisted men for field duty. If civilian employees could be hired, he could provide more troops. Ibid.

     173. Claiborne to Wilkins, July 4, 1859, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Bonneville to Thomas, July 10, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 352-353, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Kenner, History of New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 126-127.

     174. Wilkins to Davis, July 12, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 355, USAC, RG 393, NA; Bonneville to Thomas, July 17, 1859, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 2, 36 Cong., 1 sess. (Serial 1024), v. 2, pt. 1, p. 308; Special Orders No. 95, HQ DNM, July 21, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Kenner, History of New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 127-128.

     175. Bonneville to Thomas, Aug. 6, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 361, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Kenner, History of New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 128.

     176. Special Orders No. 97, HQ DNM, July 31, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; Morris to Wilkins, Aug. 23, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Bonneville to Thomas, Aug. 31, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 367-368, USAC, RG 393, NA. Bonneville, Inspector General Joseph E. Johnston, and Adjt. General Lorenzo Thomas all considered Fort Union expendable in 1859. Johnston to Thomas, July 11, 1859, Bonneville to Thomas, July 15, 1859, & Thomas endorsement on previous letter, Aug. 16, 1859, LR, AGO, RG 94, NA. Thomas wrote: "Fort Union presents no very important bearing upon any of the Indian relations of New Mexico, and the troops could be better employed at a more suitable position within the Department, perhaps on the Pecos."

     177. See 1844 map in Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies, between 58 & 59.

     178. Kenner, History of New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 128-129; and Wilkins to Morris, Oct. 15, 17, & 18, 1859, Wilkins to A. Jackson, Oct. 17, 1859, & Bonneville to A. Rencher, Oct. 18, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 377-380, USAC, RG 393 NA.

     179. William W Bent's Report, Oct. 5, 1859, reprinted in LeRoy R. and Ann W. Hafen, eds., Relations with the Indians of the Plains, 1857-1861: A Documentary Account, vol. IX of The Far West and Rockies Series, ed. by LeRoy R. Hafen (Glendale: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1959), 186.

     180. Leo E. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 113-117.

     181. Ibid., 117-123.

     182. Morris to Wilkins, Oct. 18, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     183. Wilkins to Enos, Oct. 22, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 381, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     184. Fauntleroy to Cooper & Fauntleroy to Morris, Oct. 25, 1859, & Fauntleroy to Thomas, Nov. 6, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 382-384, USAC, RG 393, NA; General Orders No. 4 & 5, HQ DNM, Oct. 25 & Nov. 2, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA. Colonel Bonneville and the Third Infantry were transferred to the Dept. of Texas the following spring. Special Orders No. 54, HQ DNM, May 3, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 355, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     185. Fauntleroy to Thomas, Nov. 6, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 385, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 132, HQ DNM, Nov. 6, 1859, DNM Orders, v. 38B, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Nov. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     186. Wilkins to Simonson, Nov. 14, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10., p. 386, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 70, HQ FU, Nov. 16, 1859, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and David Bell to Roger Jones, Jan. 4, 1860, LR, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     187. Ibid.; and Simonson to Wilkins, Dec. 9, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     188. Fauntleroy to Thomas, Dec. 12, 1859, & Wilkins to Simonson, Dec. 13 & Dec. 19, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 391-393, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 79, HQ FU, Dec. 16, 1859, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1859, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     189. Wilkins to Simonson, Dec. 19, 1859, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 393, USAC, RG 393, NA; Simonson to Wilkins, Dec. 18 & 22, 1859, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Bell to Jones, Jan. 4, 1860, LR, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     190. Ibid.; Wilkins to Bell, Jan. 9, 1860, & Wilkins to Simonson, Jan. 10 & 28, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 397-398, 403, USAC, RG 393, NA; and General Orders No. 2, HQ FU, Jan. 15, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA. Although the mails had been running twice a month, the escorts were set up for only once a month, apparently because of the shortage of troops. The mail coaches presumably dropped to a once-a-month schedule, too.

     191. A. B. Greenwood to Jacob Thompson, Dec. 30, 1859, LS, OIA, RG 75, NA. Colonel Fauntleroy was also planning a spring campaign against the Navajos, hoping to force them to make peace in 1860 "by striking a blow that they will never forget." Fauntleroy to Thomas, Jan. 29, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 404, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     192. Wilkins to Claflin, Jan. 8, 15, & 24, 1860, & Wilkins to Rencher, Jan. 21, 1860, ibid., 397-401; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Jan. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     193. Wilkins to CO FU, Feb. 2, 1860, Fauntleroy to Thomas, Feb. 4, 1860, & Wilkins to Simonson, Feb. 8 & 18, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 405, 407-408, USAC, RG 393, NA; and General Orders No. 1 & 2, HQ DNM, Feb. 10 & 18, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 36, pp. 432-433, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     194. H. L. Scott to Fauntleroy, Mar. 10, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Fauntleroy to Cooper, Mar. 25, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 412, USAC, RG 393, NA. The Navajos increased their raiding in 1860 and even attacked Fort Defiance on April 30. O. L. Shepherd to Wilkins, May 7, 1860, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 36 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 1079), Pt. 1, pp. 52-56. They were not defeated until Kit Carson led a campaign against them during the Civil War.

     195. Orders No. 7, HQ FU, Feb. 13, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Fauntleroy to Thomas, Mar. 18, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 411, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     196. Scott to Fauntleroy, Mar. 10, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 45, HQ DNM, April 12, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 345, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     197. General Orders No. 6, HQ USA, Mar. 12, 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA; Special Orders No. 42, 45, & 57, HQ DNM, April 10 & 12 & May 14, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 343-345,356-357, USAC, RG 393, NA; Fauntleroy to Thomas, April 15, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 415-416, USAC, RG 393, NA; Fauntleroy to Ruff, May 12, 1860, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. The only engagements of consequence during the Kiowa-Comanche campaign occurred during early August 1860, on tributaries of the Republican River in northern Kansas Territory and southern Nebraska Territory, when Capt. S. D. Sturgis's command defeated a party of Comanches and Kiowas in a running fight, killing 29 Indians and losing two soldiers. Hafen & Hafen, Relations with the Indians of the Plains, 251-254.

     198. Ruff to Wainwright, May 11, 1860, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     199. Wagner to Simonson, May 26, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 426, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 68, HQ DNM, June 9, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 361-362, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, June 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     200. Wilkins to Ruff, May 3, 1860, Wagner to Ruff, May 20, 1860, & Maury to Thomas, June 10, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 419-420, 425, 429-430, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Morris to Wilkins, May 6, 1860, Records Relating to Indian Affairs, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     201. Fauntleroy to Thomas, May 6, 1860, Fauntleroy to Ruff, May 9, 1860, & Maury to Thomas, June 10, 1860, LS, DNM, Letters, v. 10, pp. 421-423, 429-430, USAC, RG 393, NA; Maury to Ruff, May 11, 1860, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Andrew Porter to Ruff, May 19 & 20, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 65, HQ DNM, May 30, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 359-360, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     202. Donaldson to Ruff, June 17, 1860, AC.

     203. Ruff to AAG DNM, June 26 & July 3, 1860, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 36 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 1079), pt. 1, pp. 56-59; and DuBois Journal, July 5, 1860. DuBois declared, "but alas for those who put their trust in Mexicans or Mexicanized Americans. There is no truth in them. Their evident intention was to take us away from the indians and they have succeeded." Ibid.

     204. Ruff to AAG DNM, June 26 & July 3, 1860, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 36 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 1079), pt. 1, pp. 56-59.

     205. Simonson to Maury, June 7 & 9, 1860, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 68, HQ DNM, June 9, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 361-362, USAC, RG 393, NA; Maury to Thomas, June 10, 1860, Maury to E. R. S. Canby, July 1, 1860, & Maury to Simonson, July 2, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 429-430, 434-435, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, June-July 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     206. Maury to Ruff, June 29, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 433, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 75, HQ DNM, June 29, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 365; and Ruff to AAG DNM, July 3, 1860, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 36 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 1079), pt. 1, p. 59. The department adjutant, Lt. Dabney H. Maury, sent the only map of the area he could find at department headquarters to Ruff on July 25. Maury to Ruff, July 25, 1860, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     207. Ruff to Maury, July 30, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; DuBois Journal, July 29, 1860; and Fauntleroy to Thomas, Aug. 12, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 449-450, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     208. Peck to AAG DNM, July 23, 1860, & Peck to DuBois, July 24, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Simonson to Maury, July 24, 1860, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 52 & 53, HQ FU, July 24 & 27, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; Maury to R. T. Frank, July 25, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 441, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 89, HQ DNM, July 25, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 376, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, July 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     209. Maury to Pegram & Maury to Donaldson, July 30, 1860, Maury to Sibley, Aug. 1, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 442-443, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Fauntleroy to Thomas, Aug. 5, 1860, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 36 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 1079), pt. 1, pp. 60-61.

     210. Maury to CO FU, Aug. 4, 1860, Maury to [Tilford], Aug. 5, 1860, & Maury to Duncan, Aug. 8 & 17, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 444-445, 447-448, 451, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 55, HQ FU, Aug. 2, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Fauntleroy to Thomas, Aug. 5 & 12, 1860, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1, 36 Cong., 2 sess. (Serial 1079), Pt. 1, pp. 60-62. Major Canby, Tenth Infantry, commanding at Fort Garland, was sent to Fort Defiance to organize and lead the Navajo campaign, and Captain Duncan's company marched from Fort Union on Aug. 31 to join Canby's force. Fauntleroy hoped the expedition could leave Fort Defiance by Oct. 1 and complete an effective campaign by Nov. 15. Maury to Canby, Aug. 21, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 455, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     211. Maury to Ruff, Aug. 7, 1860, & Fauntleroy to Thomas, Aug. 12, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 447-450, USAC, RG 393, NA; Ruff to Maury, Aug. 15, 1860, & Ruff to AAG DNM, Sept. 4, 186, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 102, HQ DNM, Aug. 23, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, pp. 385-386; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     212. Simonson to Cooper, July 7, 1860, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Fauntleroy to Cooper, July 21, 1860, Maury to Ruff, Aug. 7 & 30, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 439, 447-448, 461, USAC, RG 393, NA; Moore to Major [Donaldson], Aug. 5, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Donaldson to Porter, Aug. 8, 1860, Maury to Porter, Aug. 23, 1860, & Fry to Porter, Aug. 30, 1860, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     213. Fauntleroy to Thomas, Sept. 9 & 30, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 469-470, 479-480, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 133, HQ DNM, Oct. 7, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 405, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DuBois Journal, Sept. 3-Oct. 3, 1860.

     214. Special Orders No. 133, HQ DNM, Oct. 7, 1860, DNM Orders, v. 39, p. 405, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DuBois Journal, Oct. 10, 1860.

     215. Crittenden to Maury, Sept. 23, 1860, & Crittenden to CO Fort Larned, Oct. 5, 1860, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept.-Oct. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA; Orders No. 69 & 71, HQ FU, Oct. 1 & 10, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     216. Crittenden to Holloway, Oct. 11, 1860, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Maury to Fauntleroy, Oct. 14, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 504-505, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Hatch's Ranch, Oct. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Santa Fe Weekly Gazette, Nov. 3, 1860.

     217. Orders No. 77, HQ FU, Oct. 18, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; Maury to Fauntleroy, Oct. 18 & 31, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 487-488, 491-492, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Nov. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     218. Maury to Post Adjt FU, Oct. 29, 1860, & Maury to Fauntleroy, Oct. 31, 1860, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 491-492, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 82, HQ FU, Oct. 30, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; DuBois Journal, Nov. 30, 1860.; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct.-Nov. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     219. Crittenden to Maury, Nov. 14, & Crittenden to Ruff, Nov. 21, 1860, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     220. Most of the troops at Hatch's Ranch had marched to the Canadian River during Nov. 1860 and selected a site for Fort Butler. Post Returns, Hatch's Ranch, Nov. 1860, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     221. Maury to Crittenden, Dec. 12, 1860 & Jan. 12, 1861, Maury to Roberts, Dec. 13, 1860, Fauntleroy to Cooper, Dec. 16, 1860, & Fauntleroy to Thomas, Jan. 12 & Mar. 2, 1861, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 517-519, 534-535, 561-562, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 103, HQ FU, Dec. 26, 1860, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1860-Jan. 1861, AGO, RG 94, NA; Crittenden to AAG DNM, Jan. 11, 1861, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Dabney Herndon Maury, Recollections of a Virginian in the Mexican, Indian, and Civil Wars (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1894), 119. DuBois was not with Crittenden because of illness the day the detachment left Fort Union. The lieutenant was unhappy at being denied participation in the engagement. "I have been on the sick report but once in my 5 years of service and that has prevented my being on this scout." DuBois Journal, Jan. 5, 1861.

     222. Maury to Crittenden, Feb. 23 & Mar. 1, 1861, Maury to Canby, Feb. 24, 1861, Maury to Lynde, Feb. 25, 1861, Fauntleroy to Thomas, Mar. 2, 1861, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 551, 554, 556-557,561-562, USAC, RG 393, NA; General Orders No. 6, HQ DNM, Mar. 3, 1861, DNM Orders, v. 38C, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Orders No. 1, HQ Apache Expedition, Mar. 6, 1861, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     223. General Orders No. 9, HQ DNM, Mar. 22, 1861, & Special Orders No. 60 & 68, HQ DNM, May 9 & 19, 1861, DNM Orders, v. 38C, USAC, RG 393, NA; Maury to Crittenden, Maury to CO FU, & Maury to CO Hatch's Ranch, Mar. 23, 1861, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 567, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Loring to E. D. Townsend, May 19, 1861, OR, Ser. I, v. 1, p. 604.

     224. Maury to Duncan, April 3, 1861, LS, DNM, v. 10, pp. 575-576, USAC, RG 393, NA; Orders No. 14, HQ FU, April 12, 1861, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA; Duncan to Maury, April 15, 1861, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Maury to Duncan, April 20, 1861, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     225. Orders No. 20, HQ FU, May 2, 1861, FU Orders, v. 46A, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     226. Santa Fe Weekly Gazette, May 25 & June 8, 1861.

     227. Kenner, History of New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 137.

     228. Taylor to Post Adjt FU, Mar. 5, 1861, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     229. DuBois Journal, Mar. 30, 1861. Since Loring was a native of North Carolina, DuBois asked about the colonel's loyalty to the Union. "I doubt his loyalty," DuBois wrote in his journal, "but he says he is sound." Ibid. Loring resigned his commission less than two months later.

     230. Circular, HQ DNM, Mar. 23, 1861, DNM Orders, v. 36, p. 503, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Maury to CO FU, April 20, 1861, LS, DNM, v. 10, p. 585, USAC, RG 393, NA.


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