FORT UNION
Historic Resource Study
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CHAPTER SIX:
ENDNOTES

     1. Carleton to Meigs, Nov. 3 & 20, 1862, LS, DNM, M-1072, roll 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     2. Dwight T. Pitcaithley, "The Third Fort Union: Architecture, Adobe, and the Army," NMHR, 57 (Nov. 1982): 127-128.

     3. According to Bainbridge Bunting, Early Architecture in New Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1976), 86-104, the territorial style began in the 1850s and flowered after the Civil War when the third Fort Union was built. It was, wrote Bainbridge (p. 91), "characteristic Greek Revival-Territorial design." Another historian called the third Fort Union "an imposing collection of territorial style military buildings." Pitcaithley, "The Third Fort Union," 124.

     4. Bradley to Ludington, Aug. 15, 1868, CCFFU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     5. Shoemaker to Craig, Sept. 1 & Oct. 1, 1860, LR, ORD, RG 156, NA.

     6. Carleton to Plympton, Nov. 4, 23, & 30, 1862, LS, DNM, M-1072, roll 3, USAC, RG 393, NA; Shoemaker to Plympton, Nov. 26, 1862, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1862, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     7. McFerran, Estimate of Funds, Nov. 9, 1862, CCFFU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     8. Jas. A. Hardie to Meigs, May 8, 1865, ibid.

     9. Inman, Estimate of Cost, no date, ibid.

     10. McFerran to Davis, April 6, 1863, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     11. Ibid. and Carleton's endorsement on same, April 6, 1863.

     12. Carleton to Meigs, April 26, 1863, LS, DNM, M-1072, roll 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     13. Special Orders No. 34, June 18, 1863, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 40, pp. 263-265, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     14. Special Orders No. 16, May 13, 1864, ibid., pp. 329-330.

     15. Special Orders No. 17, May 30, 1864, ibid., p. 330.

     16. Carleton to McFerran, June 20, 1864, LS, DNM, M-1072, roll 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     17. Capt. Chas. McClure to M. R. Morgan, Dec. 17, 1867, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA. Getty to McKeever, Oct. 7, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA, reported "The new building for Subsistence stores at Fort Union will probably be completed by the end of this month."

     18. Special Orders No. 111, June 23, 1864, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 43, p. 59, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     19. Enos to McMullen, Aug. 1 & 31, 1864, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     20. Carleton to CO FU, Feb. 12, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     21. For example, see Special Orders No. 41, April 13, 1865, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 43, p. 145, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     22. Lauer to Abreu, April 17, 1865, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     23. It is not clear how many escorts were provided during the summer from Fort Union, but they did continue when troops were available. For example, one company of volunteers at Fort Union was sent in August to accompany "whatever trains may be in readiness near that post to go to the States." Special Orders No. 25, Aug. 19, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 57-58, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     24. Company C was on the trail on escort duty and was directed, on its return from Fort Larned, to join Colonel Carson's camp. Willis to CO Fort Larned, May 19, 1865, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     25. Circular, May 4, 1865, & Special Orders No. 15, May 7, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 35-37, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Carleton to Carson, May 4, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA. It was not specified for whom Camp Nichols was named, but the most likely candidate was Colonel William Augustus Nichols, who had earlier served as department adjutant in New Mexico and was, quite possibly, one of Carleton's friends.

     26. Special Orders No. 18, June 13, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 41-42, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     27. Ibid.

     28. Carleton to CO FU, May 4, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     29. Carleton to Carson, May 8, 1865, ibid.

     30. Ibid.

     31. Carson testified before the so-called Doolittle Commission, headed by Senator J. R. Doolittle and including Representative Lewis W. Ross and Senator LaFayette S. Foster (accompanied by Major General Alexander McDowell McCook), seeking a way to achieve peace with the Indians of the plains and Southwest. Brigadier General Carleton met the Doolittle Commission at Fort Union, on June 24, 1865, and accompanied them to the reservation at Bosque Redondo and to Santa Fe. Colonel Carson, as well as many other officials, met with the commission. Carson later was detailed, at the request of Senator Doolittle, for special service on the plains for the purpose of trying to persuade the plains tribes to make peace. Carson was furnished supplies and an escort from Fort Union. Special Orders No. 22, Aug. 5, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 53-54, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Carleton to Carson, Aug. 6, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA. In October 1865, Carson was one of the government commissioners at the negotiations of the Treaties of the Little Arkansas, signed with representatives of several plains tribes at the site of present Wichita, Kansas. During the same month, Brigadier General Carleton petitioned the adjutant general of the army to promote Carson to the brevet rank of brigadier general of volunteers as a reward for his outstanding service in New Mexico Territory. Carleton to AG USA, Oct. 27, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA. The recommended promotion was awarded. Heitman, Historical Register, I, 286. Carleton, himself, was rewarded with the brevet rank of major general of volunteers on Oct. 26, 1865, and received notice one month later. Ibid., Nov. 26, 1865.

     32. John Skelley visited the site of Camp Nichols in 1883 and after and provided additional information about the "moat." He described the camp site for the Kansas City Star in 1905 or 1906, and the article was reprinted in the Cimarron News (Kenton, Oklahoma Territory), Feb. 9, 1906. According to Skelley, who called the enclosure a corral, "the corral is about 300 feet square. The walls are built of solid stone, and there had been a ditch dug twelve feet wide on three sides of the corral with the dirt from the ditch thrown up against the outside walls."

     33. Russell, Land of Enchantment, 102.

     34. Ibid., 102, 104-105.

     35. Ibid., 105.

     36. Ibid., 122.

     37. Carleton to Connelly, Sept. 11, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     38. Carleton to CO Camp Nichols, Sept. 7, 1865, ibid. Camp Nichols was never reoccupied and eventually the stone walls and structures were knocked down. The historic site is located on private property northwest of Boise City, Oklahoma.

     39. Carleton to CO Camp Nichols, Sept. 18, 1865, LS, ibid.

     40. Russell, Land of Enchantment, 108. For some reason, the publisher of Mrs. Russell's memoirs adopted the spelling of "Nickols" for the camp. The Russells later were stationed at Fort Bascom and, after leaving the service, they operated a store in Tecolote. Eventually they settled on a ranch at Stonewall, Colorado, and Richard Russell was assassinated in 1888 during the struggle over the Maxwell Land Grant.

     41. Cimarron News (Kenton, Oklahoma Territory), Feb. 9, 1906.

     42. Carleton to Ford, July 30, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA. Carleton knew from experience the benefits of a winter campaign against Indians. Eventually his point of view prevailed on the plains, when General Sheridan directed a winter campaign in 1868-1869 that helped break the power of the tribes in the region and forced them to accept reservations in present Oklahoma.

     43. Cutler to CO FU, June 3, 1865, ibid.

     44. Abreu to Cutler, June 27, 1865, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     45. Special Orders No. 19, July 4, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 45-46, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     46. Carleton to CO FU, Sept. 7, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     47. Willis to Healy, Sept. 11, 1865, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     48. Carleton to CO FU, Sept. 20, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     49. Special Orders No. 2, Sept. 21, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 66-68; and Carleton to Enos, Sept. 20, 1865, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     50. Carleton to Willis, Nov. 26, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     51. Special Orders No. 13, Dec. 8, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 91, USAC, RG 393, NA; General Orders No. 57, Dec. 24, 1865, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 38, np, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1865-April 1866, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     52. Abreu to Cutler, July 24, 1865, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     53. Davis Inspection Report, April 1866, Inspection Reports, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     54. Cutler to Shinn, July 30, 1865, & Carleton to McCleave, Aug. 8, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     55. Willis to Bell, Aug. 15, 1865, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     56. General Orders No. 1, Sept. 12, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 38, pp. 263-265. The same abbreviation, DNM, is used in the footnotes to designate the district as has been used to identify the department. The boundaries of the new district were the same as the old department.

     57. General Orders No. 6, Oct. 28, 1865, ibid., p. 314.

     58. Carleton to Drum, Sept. 15, 1865, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     59. Ibid.

     60. Carleton to Drum, Sept. 25 & Oct. 22, 1865, & Carleton to AG Dept. of the Missouri, April 29, 1866, ibid.

     61. Carleton to CO FU, Nov. 7, 1865, ibid.; and Willis to Henderson Thomas, Nov. 9, 1865, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     62. Special Orders No. 10, Nov. 9, 1865, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 84. Almost a year later, no horses had been received, and Carleton was still begging for cavalry mounts for the department. Carleton to AG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 4 & 26, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     63. Carleton to Enos, Mar. 21, 1866, ibid.

     64. Carleton to Carson, May 3, 1866, & DeForrest to Carson, May 9, 1866, ibid.

     65. Davis, Special Inspection Report, May 9, 1866, Inspection Reports, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     66. Thompson to Jones, June 5, 1866, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     67. Ibid.

     68. Carleton to J. McC. Bell, July 15, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Bell to Carleton, July 16, 1866, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     69. Exec. Order, Oct. 9, 1868, FU Reservation File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     70. Shout to Post Adjt. FU, June 19, 1866, and endorsements thereon, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; McClure to Carleton, Sept. 4, 1866, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 36, Sept. 11, 1866, HQ FU, DNM Orders v. 40, p. 13, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     71. Special Orders no. 24, Aug. 12, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 122, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1866, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     72. Special Orders No. 26, Aug. 16, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 125, USAC RG 393, NA; Carleton to G. J. Campbell, Aug. 25, 1866, & Carleton to Carson, Aug. 31, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA. Carleton defended his beliefs and actions and requested authority for either the army or the Indian department to continue feeding the Utes and Jicarillas. Carleton to AG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 14, 1866, ibid.

     73. Special Orders No. 32, Sept. 9, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 137.

     74. Campbell to Marshall, Oct. 4, 1866, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Marshall to DeForrest, Oct. 4, 1866, LS, FU, ibid.

     75. Carleton to CO Albuquerque & Carleton to Farnsworth, Oct. 9, 1866, & Carleton to Carson, Oct. 15, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC RG 393, NA.

     76. Special Orders No. 43, Nov. 14, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 157, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     77. Special Orders No. 31, Aug. 28, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 135. The men of the 57th U.S. Colored Troops were near the end of their term of enlistment when they arrived in New Mexico, and they were not happy to be assigned to no other duty than repairing roads. Although they were to be marched to Fort Leavenworth in October 1866 to be mustered out of the service, most of them preferred to be discharged at Fort Union as soon as possible. G. W. Peavey to Carleton, Oct. 2, 1866, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA. Carleton to Marshall & Carleton to Mullins, Oct. 8, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC, RG 393, NA, stated the men had the right to choose where they were mustered out. They were also offered the opportunity to enlist in two new black regiments, the 10th Cavalry or the 38th Infantry, but it is not known how many did. The men of the 125th U.S. Colored Troops were given the same opportunity. Special Orders No. 35, Oct. 5, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 145-146; and General Orders No. 26, Oct. 15, 1866, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 38, pp 387-388, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     78. Easton to Meigs, Feb. 1, 1867, CCF, FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     79. Marshall to Inman, Oct. 17, 1866, LS, FU, USAC RG 393, NA; and DuBois to Marshall & Inman to Marshall, Oct. 17, 1866, LR, FU, ibid.

     80. Marshall to DeForrest, Nov. 21, 1866, LS, FU, ibid.

     81. Enos to Inman, Oct. 29, 1866, LR, FU, ibid.

     82. Inman to Marshall, Dec. 24, 1866, ibid.

     83. Marshall to Inman, Dec. 26, 1866, LS, FU, ibid.

     84. Marshall to DeForrest, Nov. 21, 1866, ibid.

     85. Easton to Meigs, Feb. 1, 1867, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA; and Carleton to Hancock, Nov. 11, 1866, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 3, USAC RG 393, NA.

     86. AIG to DeForrest, Dec. 7, 1866, LS, IG DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA. The unidentified inspector also declared that "the quarters now erected and in course of erection at the Depot and Post of Fort Union, will in my opinion be inadequate to the wants of the force at present stationed and the Head Quarters of this District, now under orders for that station."

     87. Marshall to Enos, Nov. 25, 1866, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 94, Dec. 1, 1866, HQ FU, Fort Union orders, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Sandra L. Myres, ed., Cavalry Wife: The Diary of Eveline M. Alexander 1866-1867 (College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1977), 110, 113. Marshall requested permission to have the quartermaster department provide flooring and benches for the Templars' hall. Enos offered to furnish the lumber if the soldiers provided the labor. He would permit no carpenters working on the new quarters at the post to take time to work on the chapel. Enos to Marshall, Nov. 26, 1866, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     88. Woart to Stanton, May 27, 1867, LR, FU, USAC RG 393, NA.

     89. Woart to CO FU, Aug. 6, 1866, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Nov. 1866, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     90. Special Orders No. 64, July 13, 1867, HQ FU, Fort Union Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     91. Marshall to QMG, Jan. 18, 1867, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     92. QMG to Sec. of War Edwin M. Stanton, Feb. 14, 1867, and Grant's endorsement, Feb. 19, 1867, ibid. The QMG notified the post commander that the request was denied and "no further action on subject will be taken at present." J. J. Dana to CO FU, Mar. 1, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     93. Lane was promoted from captain to major, effective November 9, 1866, but did not receive notice until later. He continued to sign as captain during his early tenure at Fort Union but is designated as major here.

     94. General Orders No. 5, June 15, 1867, HQ FU, FU Orders, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     95. Marcy, Inspection Report of Fort Union, New Mexico, June 25, 1867, & Nichols endorsement, Sept. 26, 1867, LR, OIG, RG 159, NA.

     96. Carleton to McKeever, Jan. 22, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     97. It is interesting to compare these figures with the estimates made in 1846 and 1850; see above, pp. 19-20.

     98. DeForrest, Statement Showing Indians within the Military District of New Mexico, Jan. 23, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC RG 393, NA.

     99. Carleton to Hancock, Nov. 17 & Dec. 20, 1866, & Jan. 20 & 23, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reels 3 & 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     100. AIG DNM to DeForrest, Dec. 7, 1866, LS, IG DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     101. Woart to Hancock, Mar. 14, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     102 Carleton to CO FU, Feb. 6, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     103. Woart to Hancock, Mar. 14, 1867, & Carleton endorsement, Mar. 19, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     104. Special Orders No. 44, May 9, 1867, HQ FU, DNM Orders v. 40, pp. 88-89, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     105. Frederick Wooley to QMG, Oct. 9, 1889, LR, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     106. Major Marshall was relieved of duty in the district because his health was bad, the result of wounds received during the Civil War. A board of surgeons recommended Marshall to the retirement board. He retired with the rank of colonel on Sept. 11, 1867. Special Orders No. 6, Feb. 20, 1867, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 172-173, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Heitman, Historical Register, I, 690.

     107. Lane to Inman, Feb. 13, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     108. Carleton to Lane, Mar. 10, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     109. Lane to DeForrest, Mar. 15, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     110. Ibid.

     111. Ibid.

     112. Lane to Lewis, Mar. 21, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     113. Lewis to Lane, Mar. 22, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     114. See p. 60.

     115. Lewis to Lane, Mar. 22, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     116. Ibid.

     117. Lane endorsement to ibid., Mar. 23, 1867.

     118. Sykes's endorsement, Mar. 28, 1867, on Lane to Lewis, Mar. 21, 1867, ibid.

     119. Lane to Inman, April 4, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     120. Exec. Order, Oct. 9, 1868, FU Reservation File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     121. Lane to Lewis, April 4, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     122. F. B. Jones to L. Wightman, Oct. 25, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     123. Sykes to CO Fort Lyon & CO Fort Dodge, April 20, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA. The six companies of Fifth Infantry did not leave the department until early July 1867. The remainder of the regiment was sent to the plains in September.

     124. DeForrest to Barlow & Sanderson, April 24, 1867, ibid.

     125. General Orders No. 2, April 26, 1867, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 38, p. 391, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     126. Getty to W. G. Mitchell, April 28, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     127. Davis to Lane, May 3, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     128. General Orders No. 48, May 23, 1867, HQ, FU, DNM Orders, v. 40, pp. 90-91, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Lane to Gonzales & Lane to DeForrest, May 23, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. A well-armed man was to have at least one weapon and 25 rounds of ammunition. Captain Shoemaker, Fort Union Arsenal, was authorized to sell ammunition from his inventory to "parties crossing the plains."

     129. For example, McLaughlin permitted a train of 27 wagons with mule teams and 36 men to start on June 26 and another with 46 wagons with ox teams to start on June 28. McLaughlin to Lane, June 26 & 28, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA. Mischwitz let a train of 21 wagons with 31 men proceed on the Cimarron Route on July 25. Mischwitz to Lane, July 25, 1867, ibid.

     130. Colonel Getty declared later in 1867 that "troops are necessary at Maxwells, so long as the Mohanche Utes and Jicarilla Apaches remain on the Cimarron." Getty to McKeever, Oct. 23, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     131. Lane to CO Fort Union, June 4, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     132. DeForrest to Lane, June 26, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     133. Lane to DeForrest, April 22 & July 1 & 18, 1867, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     134. DeForrest to Whiting, July 12, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     135. Special Orders 53, July 27, 1867, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 210, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Getty to McKeever, July 27, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     136. Report of Board of Health, July 24, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     137. Ibid.

     138. Ibid.

     139. General Orders No. 8, Aug. 23, 1867, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 40, p. 244, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     140. Wightman to CO Cos. A & C, 3rd Cavalry, Jan. 8, 1868, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     141. Lane to DeForrest, Aug. 4, 1867, ibid.

     142. DeForrest to Lane, Aug. 4, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.; and Special Orders No. 58, Aug. 5, 1867, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 213, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     143. Revised Army Regulations, 1863, 474.

     144. Special Orders No. 93, Sept. 4, 1867, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 40, pp. 123-124, USAC, RG 393, NA; Lane to Bainbridge, Sept. 4, 1867, Lane to CO Fort Sumner, Sept. 6, 1867, & Lane to DeForrest, Sept. 7 & 12, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and DeForrest to CO Fort Stanton, Sept. 24, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     145. Lane to CO Fort Sumner, Sept. 6, 1867, & Lane to DeForrest, Sept. 7, 1867, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Campbell to Lane, Sept. 5, 1867, & Getty to Lane, Sept. 10, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     146. Wilson to Lane, Sept. 15, 1867, ibid.; and Lane to DeForrest, Sept. 15, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     147. DeForrest to Lane & DeForrest to DuBois, Sept. 19, 1867, LR, ibid.; and Lane to DeForrest, Sept. 21, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     148. Lane to DeForrest, Sept. 15, 1867, ibid.; and Robinson to Lane, Sept. 18, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     149. Ibid.

     150. Lane to Campbell. Sept. 16, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.; and Campbell to Lane, Sept. 26, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     151. Bainbridge to Wightman, Dec. 20, 1867, ibid.

     152. Penrose to Brooke, Feb. 21, 1868, ibid.; and Brooke to Penrose, Feb. 25, 1868, LS, ibid. Private Matthews, 8th Cav., later described the Stone Ranch as a "perfect strong hold." The building was "about fifty feet long and thirty wide," with stone walls "four feet" thick. Matthews Letters, Sept. 11, 1870, FUNMA.

     153. Wilson to CO FU, Nov. 3, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     154. Ibid.; and Wilson to CO FU, Nov. 15, 1867, ibid.

     155. Lane to Roberts, Sept. 22, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     156. Lane to Tipton & Lane to DeForrest, Sept. 24, 1867, ibid.

     157. Lane to Tipton & Lane to Hawley, Sept. 27, 1867, ibid.

     158. Bainbridge to Lane, Oct. 5, 1867, and Lane's endorsements, Oct. 7 & 8, 1867, & Bainbridge's endorsement Oct. 7, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.

     159. William A. Bell. New Tracks in North America, 2 vols. (London: Chapman and Hall, 1869), I, 122-123.

     160. Hunter to Ludington, Dec. 11, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     161. CO FU to Hunter, June 10, 1868, & Brooke to Hunter, July 2, 1868, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     162. Getty to Enos, Sept. 12, 1867, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     163. Special Orders No. 96, Oct. 3, 1867, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 245, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct. 1867, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     164. Post Returns, Fort Union, June-August 1865, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     165. Olsmith Memoirs, quoted in Sam Woolford, "The Pretty Girls of Old Fort Union," New Mexico Magazine (Oct. 1961): 11.

     166. Von Luettwitz to Wightman, Nov. 28, 1867, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     167. Bainbridge to Wightman, Dec. 5, 1867, ibid.

     168. Wightman to Riley, Dec. 18, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.

     169. Peters to Brooke, Dec. 18, 1867, Riley to Brooke, Dec. 19, 1867, & Riley to Wightman, Dec. 24, 1867, LR, FU, ibid.; Wightman to Riley, Jan. 6, 1867, LS, FU, ibid.; and Heitman, Historical Register, I, 831.

     170. Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1867, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     171. Hall to A. J. Smith, Mar. 2, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     172. Hunter to CO FU, Mar. 3, 1868, ibid.

     173. General Field Orders No. 5, July 26, 1866, HQ Dept. of the Missouri, copy in LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     174. Sheridan to Getty, Mar. 7, 1868, Getty to McKeever, Mar. 19, 1868, & Hunter to Brooke, Mar. 19, 1868, ibid.; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1868, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     175. Hawley to Brooke & Wightman to King, Mar. 31, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     176. Wightman to King, April 5, 1868, ibid.; Special Orders No. 55, April 10, 1868, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 321, USAC, RG 393, NA; Hunter to Brooke, April 11, 1868, & Hawley to King, April 13, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     177. Hawley to Brooke, April 13, 1868, ibid. Private Matthews, who arrived at Fort Union two years later, reported in letters to his family some of the folklore about Coe and his gang of thieves. Coe and his cohorts, Matthews related, had built Stone Ranch near a large, natural cave where they hid stolen livestock until they could drive the horses, mules, and cattle to "the States to sell them." Troops had finally besieged the Stone Ranch and captured Coe and several of his gang. Matthews understood that Coe had been "taken to St. Louis and tried, found guilty and hung." Then came what the young soldier called "the exciting and interesting part of the story." Coe's wife and son were present at his execution, and the mother "made the little son stand over the body of his dead father and take an oath that he would avenge the death of his father, by killing the twelve jury men that convicted the father. The boy took the oath and up to the time of writing this has succeeded in Killing Seven of the twelve, and is not done yet." Matthews Letters, Sept. 1870, FUNMA.

     178. Hawley to Brooke, April 19,22 & May 1, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     179. Special Orders No. 70, May 19, 1868, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 334.

     180. Statement by M. Dueber, April 10, 1869, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     181. King to Wall, April 13, 1868, LS, FU, ibid.

     182. Hunter to CO FU, May 20, 1868, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     183. Maj. A. W. Evans, Inspection Report on Cimarron, NM, June 21, 1868, LR (13-M-1868), OIG, RG 159, NA.

     184. Ibid.

     185. Sheridan to Getty, Mar. 27, 1868, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 94, June 18, 1868, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 345, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     186. Getty to Whiting, May 31, 1868, & Hunter to Whiting, June 10, 1868, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Special Orders No. 85, June 5, 1868, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, p. 339, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     187. Getty to Sherman, June 7, 1868, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     188. Getty to McKeever, July 14, 1868, ibid. Four carpenters had been hired for eight days, at the rate of $4.00 per day, to "prepare a crossing of the Rio Grande" for the Indians. Hunter to Ludington, July 29, 1868, ibid.

     189. General Orders No. 27, June 29, 1869, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 150A, p. 49, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     190. Romero to CO FU, June 12, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     191. Kobbe to CO Fort Bascom, June 26, 1868, & Hunter to CO Fort Bascom, July 16, 1868, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     192. Kobbe to McClure, June 22, 1868, ibid.

     193. Kobbe to Ludington, June 22, 1868, ibid.

     194. Kobbe to CO FU, June 20, 1868, ibid.

     195. Kobbe to CO Co. A, 3rd Cav., June 30, 1868, ibid.

     196. Special Orders No. 104, July 8, 1868, & Special Orders No. 126, Aug. 16, 1868, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 355-356, 369, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, July 1868, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     197. Wightman to Bradley, July 16, 1868, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     198. Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. & Nov., 1868, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     199. Circular, Mar. 13, 1869, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     200. Special Orders No. 160, Oct. 20, 1868, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 41, pp. 389-390, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct. & Nov. 1868, AGO, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     201. General Field Orders No. 8, Jan. 21, 1869, HQ Dept. of the Missouri, copy in LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     202. See Utley, Frontier Regulars, 149-159.

     203. Ennis to Thompson, Nov. 30, 1868, & Bradley endorsement, Dec. 3, 1868, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     204. Bradley to Thompson, Dec. 3, 1868, ibid.

     205. Thompson to Bradley, Dec. 4, 1868, LS, FU, ibid.

     206. Post Returns, Fort Union, Feb. 1869, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     207. Getty to McKeever, Mar. 13, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; and McKeever to Getty, April 10, 1869, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     208. Bradley to Ludington, May 18, 1869, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     209. Some of the experiences of those living in the quarters may be found in chapter 8 on life at the third post.

     210. Although Bradley stated that all buildings were completed and no more were anticipated, he was directed by Colonel Getty a few months later to erect a shed for sheltering cavalry horses at Fort Union. In November 1869 Getty "authorized the repair of corrals" at the post. Kobbe to Ludington, Sept. 28 & Nov. 14, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     211. Ibid.

     212. Davis to Marcy, Sept. 10, 1869, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     213. Kobbe to Ludington, Sept. 3, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     214. Davis to Marcy, Sept. 10, 1869, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     215. Hardie endorsement to ibid., Sept. 21, 1869; Rucker endorsement, Sept. 23, 1869; and Sheridan endorsement, Sept. 28, 1869.

     216. Ibid. In some respects, Sheridan was probably correct, and by 1869 the need for a large complex at Fort Union was open to question. It was no longer required as a base of military operations. Many of the commodities collected and reshipped from its storehouses could have been distributed directly from the railroad in Kansas or Colorado Territory to most military posts in New Mexico. But the military bureaucracy was slow to change, and Sheridan's observations were merely a portent of what would eventually happen more than 20 years later.

     217. Townsend to Meigs, Oct. 13, 1869, LR, QMG, RG 92, NA.


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