FORT UNION
Historic Resource Study
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CHAPTER SEVEN:
ENDNOTES

    1. Getty to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Oct. 8, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     2. Proceeding of a Board of Survey, Nov. 22, 1871, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     3. Surgeon General's Office, Circular No. 4: Report on Barracks and Hospitals with Descriptions of Military Posts (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1870), 260.

     4. Gregg to McGonnigle, July 13, 1870, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     5. McGonnigle to Robinson, July 13, 1870, ibid., and enclosed advertisement for Tascott's enamel paint.

     6. Bradley to Vroom, Dec. 1, 1869, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA, reported "that the roofs of the buildings in the Post are leaking badly and that it will require a man nearly all the time to keep them in proper repairs during the winter months; I have therefore respectfully to request that Pvt Calvin E. Hathaway Troop 'A' 3rd U.S. Cav, be detailed as Tinner and another sober and reliable man in his place as laborer."

     7. Grier to AG USA, Aug. 13, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, RG, NA.

     8. Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1869, Sept. 1870, Jan., Mar. & Aug. 1876, Sept. 1877, Mar. & Aug. 1890, & Apr. 1891, AGO, RG 94, NA; Grier to AG USA, Oct. 18, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; Heitman, Historical Register, I, 393, 617, 873, 888, 986, 1053.

     9. Mitchell to CO FU, Nov. 24, 1869, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA. Actually, there were two detachments of recruits on the way. The first, under command of 2d Lt. Donald McIntosh, 7th Cav., from Fort Leavenworth, was comprised of 95 recruits for the 3rd Cav. and 71 for the 15th Inf. They arrived at Fort Union on Dec. 19. The second, 116 recruits for the 3rd Cav., arrived at Fort Union under command of Lt. George Cradlebaugh, 3rd Cav., on Dec. 28. Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1869, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Getty to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Dec. 30, 1869, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     10. Starr to J. H. Mahnken, Oct. 20, 1870, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     11. Lafferty to CO FU, Sept. 2, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     12. Kobbe to Grier, Dec. 12, 13, & 14, 1869, & Getty to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Dec. 13, 1869, ibid.

     13. Matthews Letters, June 22, 1870, FUNMA.

     14. Post Returns, Fort Union, 1870-1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     15. Hobart to AAAG DNM, May 27, 1870, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     16. Orders No. 53, May 28, 1870, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 44, p. 177, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     17. Peters to J. D. Stevenson, June 18, 1870, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     18. Getty to Pope, June 9, 1870, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA. The details of Getty's defense focused primarily on the depots and are included in chapter 9.

     19. Kobbe to CO Fort Bascom, July 2, 1870, ibid.; Post Returns, Fort Union, July 1870, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     20. Getty to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Aug. 28, 1870, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     21. Matthews Letters, Sept. 11 & Sept. 1870, FUNMA.

     22. Kobbe to CO FU, Sept. 26, 1870, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept. 1870, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     23. Hobart to Mahnken, Oct. 3, 1870, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     24. Matthews Letters, Sept. 27 & Oct. 4 & 5, 1870, FUNMA.

     25. Ibid., Oct. 16 & 21 & Nov. 4, 1870.

     26. Orders No. 117, Sept. 22, 1870, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 44, p. 227, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     27. Circular, Oct. 10, 1870, ibid., p. 238.

     28. Circular, Oct. 10, 1870, ibid.

     29. Circular, Sept. 26, 1870, ibid., p. 230.

     30. Orders No. 122, Sept. 29, 1870, ibid., p. 232.

     31. Orders No. 125, Oct. 5, 1870, ibid., p. 234.

     32. Orders No. 127, Oct. 8, 1870, ibid., p. 236.

     33. Circular, Dec. 31, 1870, ibid., p. 284.

     34. Special Orders No. 105, Oct. 20, 1870, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, pp. 151-152, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Kobbe to CO FU, Dec. 25, 1870, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     35. Kobbe to Gregg, Oct. 25, 1870, ibid.; and Orders No. 140, Oct. 26, 1870, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 44, p. 248, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     36. E. Luff to Mahnken, Oct. 28, 1870, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     37. Matthews Letters, Dec. 11, 16, & 31, 1870, FUNMA.

     38. Ibid., Dec. 31, 1870, & Jan. 6, 1871.

     39. Orders No. 137, Oct. 22, 1870, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 44, p. 246, USAC, RG 393, NA; Gregg to Kobbe, Oct. 24, 1870, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Gregg to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, July 8, 1871, ibid.

     40. Foote to Gregg, Oct. 21, 1870, and endorsements, LR, FU, ibid.

     41. Gregg to Kobbe, Nov. 21, 1870, LS, FU, ibid.

     42. Potter to Kobbe, Dec. 10, 1870, & Getty's endorsement, Dec. 18, 1870, LR, FU, ibid.

     43. General Orders No. 5 & 6, Feb. 1, 1871, HQ DNM, DNM Orders v. 150a, pp. 147-148, USAC, RG 393, NA; and General Orders No. 11, April 30, 1871, ibid., v. 150a, p. 154.

     44. Post Returns, 1871-1872, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     45. Lafferty to CO FU, April 12, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     46. Gregg to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, April 12, 1871, ibid.

     47. Clendenin to Gregg, Mar. 15, 1871, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     48. Gregg to CO FU, Mar. 29, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 28, Mar. 29, 1871, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, pp. 185-186, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     49. Randlett to AAG DNM, May 3, 1871, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     50. Caraher to CO Fort Bascom, May 14, 1871, ibid.; Granger to Pope & Lafferty to CO FU, May 16, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; Pullman to Clendenin, May 19, 1871, & Gregg to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, June 1, 1871, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     51. Pope to E. E. Wood, June 12, 1871, & Randlett's endorsement, no date, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     52. Randlett to Clendenin, May 29 & 30, 1871, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Clendenin to AAAG DNM, May 31 & June 2, 1871, LS, FU, ibid.; Lafferty to CO FU, June 2, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; Williams to Granger, June 14, 1871, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and The Weekly New Mexican (Santa Fe), June 6, 1871.

     53. Williams to CO DNM, June 21, 1871, and endorsements, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     54. Hartz to Post Adjt. FU, July 24, 1871, ibid.

     55. The Weekly New Mexican, Nov. 21, 1871.

     56. Lafferty to CO FU, July 15, 1871, & Granger to Pope, July 27, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA; The Weekly New Mexican, Oct. 10, 1871; and Kenner, New Mexican-Plains Indian Relations, 191.

     57. Special Orders No. 97, Aug. 9, 1871, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, p. 241, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Lafferty to Pratt, Sept. 28, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     58. The Weekly New Mexican, June 6, 1871.

     59. Ibid., June 13, 1871.

     60. Granger to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Aug. 1, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     61. Lafferty to CO FU, Oct. 21, 1871, ibid.; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Nov. 1871, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     62. Lafferty to Chief QM DNM, Aug., 14, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     63. Fryer to Post Adjt. FU, June 24, 1872, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     64. Peters to Post Adjt. FU, July 29, 1871, ibid.; and Lafferty to Chief QM DNM, Aug. 17, 1871, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     65. Ibid., Aug. 30, 1871.

     66. Lafferty to Hobart, Feb. 2, 1872, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Feb. 1872, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     67. Williams to CO DNM, April 13, 1872, LR, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 61, April 21, 1872, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, p. 324, USAC, RG 393, NA; Gregg to AAAG DNM, May 9 & June 4, 1872, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Granger to Gregg, June 8, 1872, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     68. Matthews Letters, June 25-Sept. 30, 1872, FUNMA. Matthews was critical of Col. Gregg, declaring that he "has his tent or rather tents pitched in a nice shady grove about two hundred yards to the right of the Troops. And is fixed up so nicely that would suppose he was out on a pleasure excursion. And in fact that is all it is to him, he has one large wall tent for his sleeping apartment, adjoining which is another large tent for his dining room and in rear of that is his Kitchen, has a nice board floor, (and in fact all the officers have board floors in their tents), he has a man to ride five miles every morning for milk. A four mule team is sent the same distance each morning after spring water for the officers. And another team is sent ten miles once each week for ice. With all this comfort, and plenty of Whiskey to drink it is no more than a pic-nick to him." Ibid., June 25, 1872.

     69. Granger to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, May 8, 1872, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     70. Sartle to CO Camp on the Canadian, July 11, 1872, ibid.

     71. Matthews Letters, Sept. 30, 1872, FUNMA.

     72. Granger to Gregg, June 24, 1872, & Sartle to CO Cimarron, June 27, 1872, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 4, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     73. Sartle to Luff, July 23, 1872, ibid.

     74. Sartle to CO Cimarron, July 25 & Aug. 13, 1872, ibid.; and Granger to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, July 30, 1872, ibid.

     75. Willard to Gregg, July 18, 1872, ibid.

     76. Sartle to CO Fort Bascom, Aug. 1, 1872, ibid.

     77. The story of Hittson's invasion may be found in Charles L. Kenner, "The Great New Mexico Cattle Raid, 1872," NMHR, 37 (Oct. 1962): 243-259. See also The Weekly New Mexican, Sept. 17 & 24, & Oct. 1, 1872.

     78. Gregg to Granger, Sept. 17, 1872, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     79. Special Orders No. 140, Oct. 8, 1872, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, pp. 375-376, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     80. Granger to Gregg, Mar. 1, 1873, & Willard to Gregg, Mar. 2, 1873, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     81. Foote to Rogers, Mar. 6, 1873, Gregg to Hobart, April 14, 1873, Gregg to McGonnigle, April 15, 1873, & Gregg to AAAG DNM, April 17, 1873, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 38, May 5, 1873, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, p. 21, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Willard to CO FU, May 5, 1873, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     82. Matthews Letters, Mar. 2 & 7, 1873, FUNMA. Matthews was among those troops who were stationed at old Fort Bascom during the summer of 1873 and provided considerable information about the experience in his letters. Ibid., Mar. 14-Oct. 19, 1873.

     83. Willard to Young, July 22, 1873, & Blair to Young, Aug. 25, 1873, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 97, Oct. 1, 1873, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, pp. 457-458, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     84. Matthews Letters, Mar. 24, 1874; Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar.-April 1874, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     85. Matthews Letters, Jan. 20, 1874, FUNMA.

     86. Alexander to AAAG DNM, Mar. 14, 1874, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     87. Special Orders No. 35, April 23, 1874, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, pp. 498-499, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     88. Pope to Gregg, June 25, 1874, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     89. Gregg to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, July 5 & 7, 1874, TS, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Eckles to AAAG DNM, July 6, 11, & 12, 1874, TS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     90. Alexander to AAAG DNM, TS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Mahnken to Alexander, July 14 & 22, 1874, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     91. McCleave to AAAG DNM, July 13, 1874, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     92. Gregg to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, July 22 & 24, 1874, & Mahnken to Young, July 25, 1874, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Young to AAAG DNM, July 27, 1874, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     93. Young to AAAG DNM, July 22, 1874, TS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Gregg to Smith, July 23, 1874, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     94. Pope to Gregg, July 24, 1874, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     95. Eckles to AAAG DNM, July 25, 1874, TS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     96. Mahnken to Price, July 25, 1874, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     97. For an overview of the Red River War, see Utley, Frontier Regulars, 219-233.

     98. The story of the contract wagon train is included in chapter 9.

     99. Morrison to Price, Aug. 8 & 11, 1874, LS, DNM, M-1072, reels, USAC, RG 393, NA; Price to Mahnken, Aug. 20, 1874, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Mahnken to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 17, 1874, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     100. Hartwell to Mahnken, Jan. 25, 1875, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     101. Eckles to AAAG DNM, Oct. 26 & 31,1874, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Mahnken to Eckles, Oct. 26 & 31, 1874, TS, ibid.; and Post Returns, Fort Union, May-Nov. 1874, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     102. Alexander to AAAG DNM, Dec. 7, 1874, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     103. Ibid., Mar. 2, 1875.

     104. Ibid., Mar. 29, 1875.

     105. Alexander to AAAG DNM, Dec. 7, 1874, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     106. Smith to CQM, June 28, 1874, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     107. Special Orders No. 123, Dec. 9, 1874, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 153, p. 548, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     108. Alexander to AAAG DNM, Dec. 11, 1874, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     109. Devin to CO FU, Dec. 20, 1874, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Ellis to AAAG DNM, Dec. 20 & 29, 1874, TR, ibid.

     110. Devin to Young, Jan. 25, 1874, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     111. Devin to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, April 5, 1875, ibid. Devin reported that "the Indians are very poor and submissive and have eaten most of their horses."

     112. Devin to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Feb. 25, 1875, ibid.; and Williams to Devin, Feb. 25, 1875, TR, ibid.

     113. Pope to Devin, April 18, 1875, ibid.; Devin to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, April 20 & 22, 1875, TS, ibid.; and Devin to CO FU, April 19, 1875, ibid.

     114. The Weekly New Mexican, June 8, 1875.

     115. Gregg to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, June 7, 1875, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Williams to Gregg, June 15, 1875, TR, ibid.; Post Returns, Fort Union, June-Dec. 1875, AGO, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     116. For additional information, the following are recommended: Keleher, Maxwell Land Grant; Jim Berry Pearson, The Maxwell Land Grant (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961); Morris F. Taylor, O. P. McMains and the Maxwell Land Grant Conflict (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1979); and Norman Cleaveland and George Fitzpatrick, The Morleys—Young Upstarts on the Southwest Frontier (Albuquerque: Calvin Horn, Publisher, 1971).

     117. The Weekly New Mexican, Sept. 18, Oct. 12 & Nov. 9, 1875. Rev. Tolby left a wife and two daughters. He was buried at Cimarron with Masonic honors, having been senior deacon of the Cimarron lodge at the time of his death.

     118. Griego's body was buried at Cimarron, but in 1877 it was reinterred at Santa Fe where his mother and family lived. The Daily New Mexican, Mar. 5, 1877.

     119. The Weekly New Mexican, Nov. 16, 1875.

     120. Cornish to Granger, Nov. 8, 1875, & Cornish to AAAG DNM, Nov. 9, 1875, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     121. Cornish to Granger, Nov. 8, 1875, & Cornish to AAAG DNM, Nov. 11, 1875, ibid.; and Weekly New Mexican, Nov. 16, 1875.

     122. Cornish to AAAG DNM, Nov. 11, 1875, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Blair to Cornish, Nov. 13, 1875, TS, ibid.

     123. N. Pope to CIA, Oct. 10, 1872, quoted in Keleher, Maxwell Land Grant, 55.

     124. Irvine to Granger, Nov. 17, 1875, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Blair to CO FU, Nov. 17, 1875, TS, ibid.; and Keleher, Maxwell Land Grant, 59. Agent Irvine had been appointed to be the agent for the Navajos and was about ready to move when this incident occurred.

     125. Lafferty to AAAG DNM, Nov. 18 & 19, & Irvine to AAAG DNM, Nov. 20, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     126. Ibid.

     127. Blair to McCleave, Nov. 20, 1875, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and McCleave to AAAG DNM, Nov. 20 & 21, 1875, TR, ibid.

     128. Ropes to AAAG DNM, Nov. 21, 1875, TR, ibid.; Blair to Ropes, Nov. 21, 1875, TS, ibid.; and Pope to Granger, Nov. 26, 1875, TR, ibid.

     129. McCleave to AAAG DNM, Nov. 27, 1875, TR, ibid.; Pope to Granger, Nov. 27, 1875, ibid.; and McParlin to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 27, 1875, TS, ibid.

     130. Pope to Granger, Nov. 27, 1875, TR, ibid.; Williams to CO DNM, Nov. 27 & Dec. 1, 1875, ibid.; and Granger to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 29, 1875, TS, ibid.

     131. Keleher, Maxwell Land Grant, 59-60.

     132. Stafford to Cornish, Dec. 22, 1875, & Stafford to McCleave, Dec. 22 & 23, 1875, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     133. Cornish to AAAG DNM, Dec. 31, 1875, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Dec. 1875, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     134. Ibid., Jan.-Feb. 1876; Blair to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Jan. 10, 1876, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Pope to Wade, Jan. 11, 1876, TR, ibid.

     135. Wade to Cornish, Jan. 16, 1876, TS, ibid.; and Cornish to Wade, Jan. 17, 1876, TR, ibid.

     136. Cornish to AAAG DNM, Jan. 21, 1876, ibid.; and Stafford to Cornish, Jan. 21, 1876, TS, ibid.

     137. It was believed but never proven that Clay Allison had led the attack on the newspaper and thrown the printing press in the Cimarron River. The press was recovered from the river in the 1950s. Pearson, Maxwell Land Grant, 70.

     138. Axtell to Wade, Jan. 24, 1876, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Wade to Axtell, Jan. 24, 1876, TS, ibid.; and Special Orders No. 5, Jan. 29, 1876, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 205, np, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     139. Pope to CO DNM, Feb. 4, 1876, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     140. Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Feb. 19, 1876, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Feb.-May 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     141. Pope Endorsement, Oct. 5, 1875, to Belcher to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 13, 1875, CCF FU, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     142. Kimball to CQM Dept. of the Missouri, Feb. 13, 1876, ibid. Early in 1887 the steam engine was "broken down" and water for the garrison was hauled by wagon from the old arsenal to the water tank at the depot, which also served the post. Post Commander Mizner declared: "Everybody is requested to be as economical as possible in the use of water until the engine can be repaired." Circular, Feb. 2, 1887, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     143. Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Mar. 9, 1876, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     144. Hatch to Wade, Mar. 13, 1876, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Wade to Hatch, Mar. 13, 1876, TR, ibid.

     145. Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA; and J. S. Loud to CO FU, Mar. 24, 1876, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     146. Loud to Moore, Mar. 25, 1876, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Moore to AAG DNM & Moore to Hatch, Mar. 25, 1876, TR, ibid.; and The Weekly New Mexican, Mar. 26, 1876.

     147. Loud to CO FU & Loud to Moore, Mar. 29, 1876, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     148. Loud to McKibbin, Mar. 30, 1876, ibid.

     149. Wade to CO Cimarron, April 4, 1876, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Loud to CO Cimarron, April 7, 1876, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 36, April 8, 1876, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 205, np, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, April 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     150. Moore to AAAG DNM, May 12 & 15, 1876, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, May-July 1876, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     151. Ibid., July-Nov. 1876.

     152. Dudley to AAAG DNM, Nov. 21,22, & 24, 1876, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     153. Medical History, Fort Union, Mar.-April 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     154. Humphrey to Kimball, April 23, 1877, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Medical History, Fort Union, May 1877, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     155. Special Orders No. 25, April 4, 1877, & Special Orders No. 34, May 8, 1877, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 206, np, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Clum to Hatch, April 21, 1877, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     156. Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 22, 1877, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 5, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     157. Post Returns, Fort Union, Sept. 1877-Dec. 1881, AGO, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     158. With railroad service to El Moro near Trinidad and to Alamosa, Colorado, stagecoach service from the railhead to Santa Fe ended July 1, 1878. Passenger service was provided daily by buckboards from the railroad to Santa Fe. Loud to Sherman, Aug. 7, 1878, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     159. Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Feb. 6, 1878, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     160. Ibid.

     161. Loud to Kimball, Feb. 25, 1878, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     162. Fort Lewis was established in Colorado on Oct. 15, 1878, to guard the Ute reservation. Fort Garland was not closed until Nov. 30, 1883. Prucha, Guide to the Military Posts of the U.S., 75, 85.

     163. Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, June 4, 1878, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     164. Las Vegas Optic, Sept. 6, 1881.

     165. Lee to Depot QM, May 13, 1881, LR, QM FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     166. See Robert M. Utley, Four Fighters of Lincoln County (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986); and Robert M. Utley, High Noon in Lincoln County: Violence on the Western Frontier (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987).

     167. Special Orders No. 31, Mar. 25, 1878, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 206, np, USAC, RG 393, NA; Loud to Morrow, April 7, 1878, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     168. The depot furnished 10 wagons and six-mule teams for troops sent to Fort Garland during the Ute crisis. Loud to Chief QM DNM, Mar. 5, 1878, ibid.

     169. Hatch to Loud, May 9, 1878, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     170. Special Orders No. 83, Sept. 12, 1878, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 206, np, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     171. Pope to Hatch, April 15, 1878, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, April 18, 1878, TS, ibid.

     172. Special Orders No. 38, April 22, 1878, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 206, np, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Loud to McKibbin, April 23, 1878, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     173. Whittemore to AAAG DNM, April 25, 1878, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; McKibben to Loud, April 27 & 28, 1878, ibid.; and Medical History, Fort Union, April-May 1878, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     174. Platt to CO DNM, May 10 & 24, 1878, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 49, June 1, 1878, & Special Orders No. 50, June 8, 1878, HQ DNM, DNM Orders, v. 206, np, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     175. Watkins to Hatch, July 18, 1878, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, July 18, 1878, TS, ibid.

     176. Tiller, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, 82-98.

     177. Loud to CO FU, Aug. 29, 1878, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     178. Medical History, Fort Union, Oct. 1878, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     179. For example, 200 horses arrived at Fort Union in Oct. 1879 and were taken by Capt. Francis S. Dodge, 9th Cav., to the troops fighting Apaches in southern New Mexico. Loud to Dodge, Oct. 29, 1879, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     180. Loud to Parker, Aug. 30 & Sept. 15, 1879, ibid.; and Parker to AAAG DNM, Sept. 19, 1879, TR, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     181. Hatch to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Oct. 1, 1879, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     182. Steelhammer to AAAG DNM, Oct. 7, 8, & 19, 1879, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Loud to Steelhammer, Oct. 7, 1879, TS, ibid.; Loud to Stedman, Oct. 13, 1879, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA; Thomas to AAAG DNM, Oct. 19 & Nov. 2, 1879, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Nov. 1879, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     183. Whittemore to AAAG DNM, Feb. 3 & 5, 1881, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     184. Loud to CO FU, Aug. 6, 1881, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 6, USAC, RG 393, NA; May to Whittemore, Aug. 11, 1881, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1881, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     185. Orders No. 63 & 65, Oct. 21 & 24, 1881, HQ FU, DNM Orders, v. 46, p. 122, USAC, RG 393, NA; Post Returns, Fort Union, 1881-1888, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     186. Hatch to AAG, Dept. of the Missouri, Oct. 3, 1881, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Stedman to AAG, Dept. of the Missouri, Oct. 4, 1881, ibid.; Platt to Bradley, Oct. 6, 1881, TR, ibid.; and Platt to Mackenzie, Oct. 29, 1881, ibid. Colonel Mackenzie was promoted to rank of brigadier general on Oct. 26, 1882. R. T. Lincoln to Mackenzie, Oct. 26, 1882, ibid.

     187. Heitman, Historical Register, I, 221,491; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct. 1882, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     188. Mackenzie to Brady, July 31, 1882, TS, ibid.; Dorst to Brady, July 31, 1882, ibid.; Mackenzie to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, July 31, 1882, ibid.; Mackenzie to Pope, Aug. 2, 1882, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Brady to Mackenzie, Aug. 10, 1882, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     189. Ibid.; Brady to AAAG DNM, Aug. 2 & 8, 1882, TR, ibid.; Dorst to Brady, Aug. 3, 1882, TS, ibid.; Mackenzie to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Aug. 9 & 10, 1882, ibid.; Dunn to CO FU, Aug. 10, 1882, TR, ibid.; Brady to AAAG DNM, Aug. 13, 1882, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1882, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     190. Brady to Robinson, Aug. 9, 1882, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Dorst to Robinson, Aug. 13, 1882, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     191. Platt to CO DNM, July 1, 1883, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     192. Dorst to Van Horn, Sept. 22, 1882, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Dorst to CO FU, Oct. 18, 1882, ibid.

     193. These prisoners were Navajos and Warm Spring Apaches, captured in April 1882 and sent to Fort Union in May of that year. They remained at the post until the spring of 1885. Soon after Col. Bradley became district commander in 1884, he recommended the release of the prisoners: "They committed no depredation before they surrendered, and have been perfectly docile and obedient since their confinement; altogether their conduct has been honest and friendly." Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, June 3, 1884, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA. Nothing more was done until May 1885 when the prisoners were sent by rail, accompanied by a non-commissioned officer, to Holbrook, Arizona Territory. J. Fornance to CO FU, May 4 &8, 1885, ibid.

     194. Ibid.; Mackenzie to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Oct. 13, 1882, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Black to AAAG DNM, Nov. 2, 1882, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     195. Black to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Jan. 30, 1883, ibid.; and Medical History, Fort Union, Jan. 1883, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     196. Mackenzie to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 26, 1883, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     197. Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 29, 1884, ibid.

     198. Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Aug. 27, 1885, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     199. Platt to Mackenzie, Oct. 24, 1883, TR, ibid.; and Heitman, Historical Register, I, 915.

     200. Platt to CO DNM, Nov. 8, 1883, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     201. Stanley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 9, 1883, TS, ibid.

     202. Black to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Mar. 3, 1884, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     203. The secretary of the interior had earlier requested that the post of Fort Union be turned over to the BIA for a school but had been told that the post was still required for military service. Summary of correspondence in AC.

     204. Platt to CO DNM, Nov. 13, 1883, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     205. Stanley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Nov. 15, 1883, TS, ibid.

     206. Carr to AAG Div. of the Pacific, Aug. 1, 1890, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     207. Ibid.; Morrow to AAG Dept. of Arizona, Mar. 24 & April 16, 1890, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA;

     208. Whittemore to AG USA, Jan. 22, 1891, ibid.; Post Returns, Fort Union, Jan.-Feb. 1891, AGO, RG 94, NA; and Kelton to CO Dept. of Arizona, Feb. 11, 1891, FU Reservation File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     209. Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, May 1, 1884, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     210. The 4th Cav., which had been serving in the Dist. of New Mexico, exchanged districts with the 6th Cav. in Arizona Territory at the same time. Occasionally a few troops of the 6th Cav. were at Fort Union.

     211. Post Returns, Fort Union, 1884-1891, AGO, RG 94, NA. Col. Mizner relinquished command of Fort Porter, New York, on May 30 and assumed command of Fort Union on June 6, 1884. A trip that would have required several months a generation earlier was accomplished in a week.

     212. Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Mar. 16 & 17, 1885, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; AAG Dept. of the Missouri to Bradley, Mar. 16, 1885, TR, ibid.; Augur to Bradley, Mar. 16, 1885, ibid.; Losch to Bradley, Mar. 17, 1885, ibid.; Bradley to Augur, Mar. 17, 1885, TS, ibid.; and Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Mar. 27, 1885, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     213. Mizner to Bradley, Mar. 16, 1885, TR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Bartlett to Bradley, Mar. 17, 1885, ibid.; Losch to Bradley, Mar. 18, 1885, ibid.; Mumford to Kirkman, Mar. 18, 1885, TS, ibid.; Mumford to Losch, Mar. 18, 1885, ibid.; Kirkman to AAAG DNM, Mar. 18, 1885, TR, ibid.; Bradley to Augur, Mar. 19, 1885, TS, ibid.; Mumford to CO FU, Mar. 19, 1885, ibid.; Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Mar. 27, 1885, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Mar. 1885, AGO, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     214. Plummer to Post Adjt. FU, May 30, 1885, AC; Medical History, Fort Union, April-May 1885, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     215. Orders No. 103, July 29, 1885, HQ FU, FU Orders, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     216. Fornance to CO FU, July 2, 1885, TS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 37, July 3, 1885, HQ DNM, copy in LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Mizner to AAG Div. of the Missouri, July 8, 1885, ibid.; Mizner to AAAG DNM, July 18, 1885, ibid.; Bradley to AAG Dept. of the Missouri, Sept. 10, 1885; and Post Returns, Fort Union, July-Sept. 1885, & Medical History, Fort Union, July-Sept. 1885, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     217. Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug. 1885-June 1886, & Medical History, Fort Union, Aug. 1885-June 1886, 1885, AGO, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Prucha, Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 155.

     218. Post Returns, Fort Union, July-Oct. 1886, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     219. Douglass to AG USA, July 17, 1887, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     220. Las Vegas Optic, Feb. 7, 1891.

     221. William S. Patten to QMG, June 3, 1892, & R. N. Batchelder to Administrators of the Estate of B. F. Butler, Mar. 5, 1894, FU Reservation File, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     222. Douglass to AAG Dept. of Arizona, Nov. 1, 1887, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     223. Carr to AAG Dept. of Arizona, Aug. 17, 1890, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     224. Douglass, Inspection Report of Fort Union, New Mexico, Sept. 5, 1886, LR, OIG, RG 159, NA.

     225. Burton, Inspection Report of Fort Union, New Mexico, April 3-4, 1889, ibid.

     226. Morrow, Inspection Report of Fort Union, New Mexico, July 2, 1889, ibid.

     227. Wooley to QMG, Oct. 9, 1889, LR, QMG, RG 92, NA.

     228. Ibid.

     229. Carr to AAG, Div. of the Pacific, Aug. 1, 1890, LS, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA.

     230. The life of the people who resided at the third Fort Union is summarized in chapter 8.

     231. C. Grierson to CO FU, Oct. 14, 1887, & C. Grierson to Glass, Oct. 21, 1887, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Oct.-Dec. 1887, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     232. C. Grierson to CO FU, May 22, 1888, LS, DNM, M-1072, USAC, RG 393, NA; B. Grierson to AAG Dept. of Arizona, May 25, 1888, ibid.; and Post Returns, Fort Union, May 1888, AGO, RG 94, NA.

     233. Douglass to AAAG DNM, Aug. 23, 1888, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; C. Grierson to AAG Dept. of Arizona, Aug. 23, 1888, LS, DNM, M-1072, reel 7, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Post Returns, Fort Union, Aug.-Oct. 1888, AGO, RG 94, NA.


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