Fort Larned/Fort Riley Road

  1. Louise Barry, The Beginning of the West (Topeka: Kansas State Historical society, 1972), 160, 558-59, 981-82.

  2. W. Turrentine Jackson, "The Army Engineers as road Surveyors and Builders in Kansas and Nebraska, 1854-1858," Kansas Historical Quarterly 17(February 1949): 39. Between the 1853 establishment of Fort Riley and the 1860 advent of the Fort Riley/Fort Larned Road, indications are that expeditions from Fort Riley struck the Santa Fe Trail at Lost Spring. Morris F. Taylor, "The Mail Station and the Military Camp on Pawnee Fork, 1859-1860," Kansas Historical Quarterly 36 (Spring 1970): 31.

  3. Jackson, "The Army Engineers," 40-42.

  4. Quoted in ibid., 44

  5. George A. Root, "Ferries in Kansas: PartVI-Smoky Hill River," "Ferries in Kansas: Part VII-Saline River," Kansas Historical Quarterly 4 (February and May 1935): 21,50.

  6. W. Stitt Robinson, ed., "The Kiowa and Comanche Campaign of 1860 Recorded in the personal Diary of J. E. B. Stuart," Kansas Historical Quarterly (Winter 1957): 390.

  7. Ibid., 390-91.

  8. Junction City Union, October 24, 1861; June 12, 19, 1862.

  9. Percival G. Lowe, Five Years a Dragoon (49-54) and Other Great Adventures on the Great Plains (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965), 209.

  10. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ser. 1, v. 34, pt. 4 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1891), 149-150 (hereafter cited as Offficial Records of the War of the Rebellion); James R. Mead, Who Came to the Saline valley in 1859, called the route "the old military road running from Ft. Riley to Larned." James R. Mead, Hunting and Trading on the Great Plains, 1859-1875 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986), 117. A. C. Spilman, Mead's contemporary and early resident of Salina, referred to the route as the Fort Zarah road. A. C. Spilman to George W. Martin, "Addenda," Kansas Historical Collections, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 667. Another Salina contemporary, Christina Phillips Campbell, described the road simply as the stage route. Julia Shelebarger Porter, "My Grandmother Christina Phillips Campbell" (Unpublished manuscript, Campbell Room of Kansas research, Salina Public Library, Salina, Kansas); Lt. M. R. Brown, engineer with the 1867 Hancock Expedition, designated the route as the Santa Fe Road; Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General, 1867, roll 562, microcopy 619, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D. D. While the route was nominally known as the Fort Riley/Fort Larned Road, the western terminus of the road was generally considered to be Walnut Creek, the site of Fort Zarah. West of Walnut Creek, the original route of the Santa Fe Trail continued on to Fort Larned.

  11. Junction City Union, May 29, 1862.

  12. Ibid., August 9, 1862.

  13. Henry Tisdale, "Travel by Stage in the Early Days," Kansas Historical Collections, 1899-1900 7 (1900): 462.

  14. Mead, Hunting and Trading, 59-60; A. T. Andreas, History of the State of Kansas, 2, vols. (Chicago: A. T. Andreas, 1883), 2: 1274.

  15. Mead, Hunting and Trading, 117-18; Porter, "My Grandmother"; Extracts From Diary of H. H. Morrison" (Unpublished manuscript, 1869, Campbell Room of Kansas Research), 28; Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, ser. 1, v. 34, pt. 4, 149-50

  16. Diary of H. H. Morrison, "70; Porter "My Grandmother."

  17. George Bird Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyennes (Norman" University of Oklahoma Press, 1956) 146; Louise Barry, "The Ranch at Walnut Creek Crossing," Kansas Historical Quarterly 37 (Summer 1971): 143-144.

  18. Andreas, History of the State of Kansas, 1274; "Joseph Lehman" (Unpublished manuscript, Salina-Biography-Joseph Lehman File, Campbell Room of Kansas Research); Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, ser. 1, v. 34, pt. 4, 149-50.

  19. "Joseph Lehman," 149-50.

  20. Porter, "My Grandmother."

  21. Ibid.

  22. Ibid.

  23. Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, ser. 1, v. 34, pt. 4, 402-4; report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kansas, 1861-65 (Topeka: Kansas State Printing Co., 1896), 518.

  24. Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, ser. 1, v. 34, pt. 4, 404.

  25. Barry, "The Ranch at Walnut Creek Crossing," 145; the two men scalped alive were Allen Edwards of Des Moines County, Iowa, and Robert McGee (Magee), a youth of thirteen or fourteen years from Easton, Kansas. Both were transported to the Fort Larned Hospital where they recovered following medical treatment. Twenty-eight years later, McGee, then living in Excelsior Springs, Missouri, billed Congress for damages received in the scalping incident. On April 1, 1973, several skeletal remains were discovered in graves disclosed by floodwaters of Walnut Creek at the Fort Zarah site. Subsequent investigation located a total of ten skeletons in two separate graves. Names associated with eight skeletons in one grave were: William Weddell of Brownsville, Nebraska; Perry Deabee and son Do, James Lassel, Robert Lucas, Lewis Simpson of Clay Center, Missouri; Talbot Edwards of Des Moines County, Iowa; and Enos Gardner, address unknown. The other grave contained the remains of two men presumed to be blacks from Leavenworth identified by first name only, Perry and Charles. Ray S Schulz, "Identities of 10 bodies remain a mystery," Great Bend Tribune, April 29, 1773, and Kansas City Star, December 31, 1892.

  26. George S Burt, "The Wabaunsee Militia Company, " Kansas Historical Collections, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 604-7.

  27. Leo E. Oliva, Fort Larned on the Santa Fe Trail (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1985), 15-16.

  28. Henry Booth, "Centennial History of Pawnee County" (Unpublished manuscript, Santa Fe Trail Center, Larned, Kansas).

  29. Official Records of the War of the Rebellion,ser. 1, v. 41, pt. 1 (1893), 233-34.

  30. Ibid., 934; Henry Inman, The Old Santa Fe Trail, The Story of a Great Highway New York" Macmillan Company, 1897).

  31. Leo E. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 161.

  32. Wayne C. Lee and Howard C. Raynesford, Trails of the Smoky Hill, From Coronado to the Cow Towns (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxtes Printers, 1980), 51, 58, 88, 91. In the summer of 1867, the Union Pacific Railway, Eastern Division, reached Fort Harker, thus eliminating that portion of the BOD route that replicated the Fort Riley/Fort Larned Road between Fort Riley and Fort Harker (Fort Ellsworth's successor).

  33. Morris F. Taylor, First Mail West (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 115-16.

  34. "Table of Distances from Junction City to Santa Fe as Given by Sanderson's Southern Overland Stage Company," Junction City Union, August 4, 1866; Taylor, First Mail West 121-22.

  35. Robert H. Steinbach, A Long March: The Lives of Frank and Alice Baldwin (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989), 24.

  36. Lee and Raynesford, Trails of the Smoky Hill, 158; Robert W. Frazer, Forts of the West: Military Forts and Presidios and Posts Commonly Called Forts West of the Mississippi River to 1898 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965), 53.

  37. Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General.

  38. Junction City Weekly Union, April 20, 1867.

  39. Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General.

  40. Ibid.

  41. Henry M. Stanley, My Early Travels and Adventures in America (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 4.

  42. Spilman to Martin, 667.

  43. Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General.

  44. Ibid.

  45. Adolph Hunnius' sketch of Fort Zarah as it appeared in September, 1867, Adolph Hunnius Papers, Library and Archives Division, Kansas State Historical Society; Barry, "The Ranch at Walnut Creek," 145; Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General.

  46. Stanley, My Early Travels, 89-91.

  47. Lee and Raynesford, Trails of the Smoky Hill, 159.

  48. Henderson Lafayette Burgess, "The Eighteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, and Some Incidents Connected with Its Service on the Plains," Kansas Historical Collections, 1913-1914 13 (Topeka: State Printing Office, 1900): 535; Frank W. Blackmar, Kansas 2 vols. (Chicago: Standard Publishing Company, 1912), 1:580.

  49. Taylor, First Mail West 121.

  50. Theodore Weichselbaum, "Statement of Theodore Weichselbaum of Ogden, Riley County, July 17, 1908, "Kansas Historical Collections, 1909-1910 11: 565

  51. Daniel Geary, "War Incidents at Kansas City," Kansas Historical Collections, 1909-1910 11: 289-90.

  52. Miguel Antonio Otero, My Life on the Frontier, 1864-1882 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987), 9-10; Campaign Map of Portions of the Sate of Kansas, 1872, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives and Records Service; Taylor, First Mail West, 121.

  53. Steinbach, A Long March, 33.

  54. Taylor, First Mail West121-22.

  55. Ibid.; David K. Clapsaddle, :"The Fort Hays/Fort Dodge Road," Kansas History (Summer 1991): 100.
    Used With Permission of the Author:
    David Clapsaddle

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