Fort Leavenworth/Round Grove/Lone Elm
Road
"Footnotes"

  1. Louise Barry, The Beginning of the West: Annals of the Kansas Gateway to the American West (Topeka; Kansas State Historical Society, 1972), 141, 159, 210. Contonment Leavenworth, established in the spring of 1827, was officially named by order of the war department the following fall. Contonment, the designation of several western military posts, had reference to a temporary base for troops. The name reference to a temporary base for troops. The name was changed to Fort Leavenworth effective February 8, 1832. Otis E. Young, The First Military Escort on the Santa Fe Trail, 1829 (Glendale' Arthur H. Clark Co. 1952). 46-67

  2. Josiah Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 217. For a full discussion of the Round Grove and Elm Grove campgrounds, see Craig Crease, "Lone Elm and Elm Grove: A Case of Mistaken Identity,"Wagon Tracks, V (August 1991): 10-13

  3. Young, First Military Escort, 68-75.

  4. Rev. J. J. Lutz, "The Methodist Mission Among the Indian Tribes in Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections IX (1906): 203.

  5. Barry, Beginning of the West, 233-234, 294.

  6. Louise Barry, "The Fort Leavenworth/Fort Gibson Military Road and the Founding of Fort Scott," Kansas Historycal Quarterly XI (May 1942): 115-121; Barry, Beginning of the West, 480-481.

  7. Ibid., 558-559.

  8. Ibid., 597-598, 620.

  9. Ibid., 690-691, 700-702; Ben L. Wiley, Mexican War Diary, MS, Fort Larned NHS Archives.

  10. Survey of County and Township Lines, Sixth Meridian, Kansas Territory, Alexander Johnson, 1854-1857, rare MS File, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.

  11. Thomas Bryan Lester, Notes by the Wayside form Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe, New Mexico, MS, Western Historical Manuscripts Collection, University of Missouri, Columbia.

  12. Percival G. Lowe, Five Years a Dragoon (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965), 18; Barry, Beginning of the West; 534, 558-559, Lt. Hammond was subsequently killed in the Battle of San Pasqual, CA, on December 6, 1946.

  13. Survey of County and Township Lines; John Robert Forsyth, Journal of a Trip From Peoria, Ill. To California on the Pacific in 1849, MS Peoria Public Library.

  14. Suvey of County and Township Lines.

  15. Ibid.; Grant W. Harrington Historic Spots or Milestones in the Progress of Wyandotte County, Kansas (Grant W. Harrington, 1935), 67; Lutz, "The Methodist Mission Among the Indian Tribes in Kansas," 204-205; Everett Dick, The Sod House Frontier, 1854-1890 (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937), 164; Barry, Beginning of the West, 210-211; George A. Root, "Ferries in Kansas, Part II Kansas River," Kansas Historical Quarterly, II (November 1932): 264. The Blacksmith's home served as a place of food and shelter for travelers on the road. See Lowe, Five Years a Dragoon, 13.

  16. Toley was variously spelled Tola, Tula, Toola, Tooley, Tuley, and Toolee. Root, "Ferries in Kansas," 265-267, Anna Heloise Abel, "Indian Reservations and the Extinguishment of Their Titles," Kansas Historical Collections, VIII (1904): 93.

  17. William R. Bemard, "Westport and the Santa Fe Trade," Kansas Historical Collections, IX (1906): 559.

  18. Forsyth, Journal.

  19. Survey of County and Township Lines. Field notes associated with this map mention a road from Charles Blue Jacket's to Toley's Ferry.

  20. Barry, Beginning of the West, 690. The City of Shawnee has placed a marker to designate the site of gum spring near 5900 Nieman Road in the parking lot of a small shopping center. This location is several blocks west of the actual gum spring site.

  21. Webster's New World Collegiate Dictionary of the American Language (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1968).

  22. Ray E Merwin, "The Wyandotte Indians," Kansas Historical Collections, IX (1903): 83 The Wyandotte Reserve was obtained form the Delawares in 1844, thirty-six square miles purchased and three square miles received as a gift. Present Kansas City, Kansas, now occupies the sites of the reserve.

  23. Lutz, "The Methodist Mission Among the Indian Tribes of Kansas," 170; "Diary of Philip Gooch Ferguson," in Marching With the Army of the West, 1846-1848, ed. By Ralph B. Bieber, vol. IV of The Southwest Historical Series (Glendale: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1936), 297.

  24. "Governor Walder's Administration, Kansas Historical Collections, V (1896): 310; William H. Coffin, "Settlement of the Friends in Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, VII (1902): 359; "Executive Minutes of John W. Geary," Kansas Historical Collections, IV (1888): 712; Lutz, "The Methodist Mission Among the Indian Tribes of Kansas," 170; Capt. H. E. Palmer, "The Black-Flag Character of War on the Border," Kansas Historical Collections, IX (1906): 456.

  25. Lutz, "The Methodist Mission Among the Indian Tribes of Kansas," 186; Rev, Jacob Spenser, "The Shawnee Indians: Their Customs and Traditions and Folklore," Kansas Historical Collections, X (1908): 400.

  26. Forsyth, Journal.

  27. Survey of County and Township Lines.

  28. Bernard, Westport and the Santa Fe Trade," 559. For a full discussion of the Westport Road, see Crease, "Lone Elm and Elm Grove," 10-13.

  29. Survey of County and Township Lines; Lester, Notes by the Wayside. Lester calculated the distance from gum spring to the July 12 campsite at eight miles. Wiley put the distance at twelve miles. For the most part, the mileage's compiled by Wiley and Lester were compatible, this distance being the major disagreement. Presented below are the tables of distance between Fort Leavenworth and Lone Elm According to Wiley, Lester, and Kendrick.

    Wiley:
    These mileage's were excerpted from the table of distances Wiley wrote in the September 12 entry of his diary.
    From Fort Leavenworth to ---- Miles ---- Total
    First Camp -------------------------- 5 ---------- 5
    First Gum Springs ---------------- 14 --------- 19
    Caw or Kansas River ------------- 7 ---------- 26
    Missionary Station ----------------- 5-(4)* --- 31
    Clear Creek ------------------------ 12 --------- 43
    Lone Elm ---------------------------- 7 --------- 50
    *In his July 7 entry, Wiley puts the distance at 4 miles.

    Lester:
    From Fort Leavenworth to ---- Miles ---- Total
    Small Stream ----------------------- 5 ------- 5
    Gum Spring ----------------------- 14 ------ 19
    Kansas River ----------------------- 5 ------ 24
    Shawnee Camp Ground ---------- 5 ------ 29
    Wolf Creek ------------------------- 8 ------ 37
    Lone Elm

    Kendrick:
    Kendrick's mileage's were excerpted from Barry's Beginning of the West, page 815.
    From Fort Leavenworth to ---- Miles ---- Total
    Camp Kanzas --------------------- 30 ------- 30
    Lone Elm -------------------------- 14 ------- 44

  30. Survey of County and Township Lines. This 1857 survey map shows the Lone Elm road striking the Santa Fe Trail about one mile east of Lone Elm. Such is in keeping with Dodge's 1835 account which speaks or the expedition passing both Elm Grove and Round Grove (Lone Elm) before turning north to Grinter's; and Cook's 1843 account which described the expedition as striking the Santa Fe Trail a little east of Lone Elm. See Notes 5 and 6.

  31. Ibid. The original route of the Santa Fe Trail joined by the Lone Elm road passed south of the DAR marker about one mile.

  32. Barry, Beginning of the West, 759-760, 869; Forsyth Journal. Forsyth calculated the distance from gum spring to his party's next campsite at eighteen miles. This figure compares favorably to Wiley's measurement of nineteen miles for the distance between gum spring and Lone Elm. However; Forsyth identified the campsite as Black Jack Grove. He was mistaken. Black Jack Grove was located some 30 miles to the west near the eastern end of the Narrows, east of present day Baldwin City, Kansas. Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies, 217; Barry, Beginning of the West, 599.

  33. Ibid., 981-982.
    Used With Permission of the Author:
    David Clapsaddle

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