Wagonbed Spring Information

    Describe Present and Historic Physical Appearance - Footnotes
  1. Ray Mattison, "Wagon Bed Spring; Lower Cimarron Spring National Survey of Historic Places and Buildings Form," 1958.

  2. Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (New York: Ginn and Company, 1931), 8-9.

  3. Adolphus Wislizenus, Memoir of a Tour to Northern Mexico, connected with Col. Doniphan's Expedition in 1846 and 1847 (Washington, DC.: 30th Congress, 1st session, Senate Miscellaneous Document, 1848), 11.

  4. Vernon L. Hamilton, Quinten L. Markley, William R . Swafford, and Harold P. Dickey, Soil Survey of Grant County, Kansas (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1969), 44-45; Merle J. Brown, "Climate" in Hamilton et al., 47; Andrew D. Robb, "Climate of Kansas" in Climate and Man: Yearbook of Agriculture 1941, House Document No. 27, 77th Congress, 1st Session (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, United States Department of Agriculture, 1941), 873-883; and Glenn T. Trewarth and Lyle H. Horn, An Introduction to Climate, Fifth Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980; originally published 1937), 360-364.
    5 to 11

  5. Martin Stein, "Archeological Survey of Wagon Bed Springs," Memorandum dated August 1, 1990, in the files of the Center for Historical Research, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.

  6. James Walker, "Interpretation of Area around Wagon Bed Springs from USDA Imagery Obtained between 1939 and 1991, Report Number 2," 1993, copy in the files of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

  7. Edwin D. Gutentag, "Location and Hydrological Characterization of Wagon Bed Spring, Grant County, Kansas.," 1993, copy in the files of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

  8. Christine Whitacre, Steven De Vore, and William Butler, Lower Cimarron (Wagon Bed) Spring Camp Site, National Historic Landmark (NHL) Boundary Study (Denver, CO : National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 1994), 26-32, and Steven De Vore, "Lower Cimarron Spring, Kansas, Archeological Field Summary" (Denver, CO: National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 1993), 11-16.

    Significance of Wagon Bed Spring - Footnotes
  1. At the time of the 1960 NHL designation, Wagon Bed Springs was also believed to have been the location where mountain man and explorer Jedidiah Smith was killed by Comanche Indians in 1831. However, recent scholarship indicates that Smith may have been killed at another location along the Cimarron River in Seward County. Louise Barry, ed., The Beginning of the West: Annals of the Kansas Gateway to the American West, 1840-1854 (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1972), 201-203.

  2. Ray Allen Billington, Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier, 4th Edition (New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1974), 388; Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan (U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, May 1990), 8; and William Brandon, Quivira, Europeans in the Region of the Santa Fe Trail, 1540-1820 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1990), 2-17.

  3. Josiah Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies, edited by Max L. Moorhead (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 13, originally published in 1844; Larry M. Beachum, William Becknell: Father of the Santa Fe Trade (El Paso: The University of Texas at El Paso, Texas Western Press, Southwestern Studies, Monograph No. 68, 1982), 21 and 29; Leo E. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 7-8; and Michael L. Olsen and Harry C. Myers, "The Diary of Pedro Ignacio Gallego Wherein 400 Soldiers Following the Trail of the Comanches Met William Becknell on his First Trip to San ta Fe," Wagon Tracks, Vol. 7, No . 1 (November 1992).

  4. Archer Butler Hulbert, Southwest on the Turquoise Trail (Denver: Stewart Commission of Colorado College and the Denver Public Library, 1933), 78-79.

  5. Billington, 390; Oliva, 10; and Hulbert, 78.

  6. Hulbert, 107; and Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, 14.

  7. Josiah Gregg, 23-25 and 213 (according to Gregg, horses were only used during the earliest stages of the trail's commercial use, when mules were not readily available); and Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, 9.

  8. Josiah Gregg, 24n.

  9. D. M. Draper, "Freight Trip to Ft. Wise, Colo.," Ms., dated 1861, M 72-161, 2, Western History Department, Denver Public Library.

  10. Oliva, 19.

  11. Ibid., 22; Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, 10; and Morris F. Taylor, First Mail West: Stagecoach Lines on the Santa Fe Trail (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 1.

  12. "The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: The Santa Fe Trail" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1963), 63-I; and James F. Meline, Two Thousand Miles on Horseback, Santa Fe and Back (New York, 1867), 261.

  13. Oliva, 23; and Rittenhouse, 27.

  14. Oliva, 13-14; and Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, 14.

  15. Billington, 390.

  16. Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, 14. Travelers followed different routes of the Santa Fe Trail depending on the season and whether the year had been wet or dry. These variations resulted in routes that could be several yards or several miles apart. Well-traveled routes also often became "braided" because of mud holes, excessive rutting, insufficient forage for draft animals, or difficult stream crossings. In addition, more adventurous travelers tried alternative routes to either find w ater, avoid encounters with Indians, or shorten travel time.

  17. Oliva, 17. According to Hobart Stocking, the trip from Chouteau's Island to Lower Cimarron Spring was approximately twenty-five hours by ox-cart; see Hobart E. Stocking, The Road to Santa Fe (New York: Hastings House, 1971), 160.

  18. Rittenhouse, 15; and Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, 14.

  19. Stocking, 149 and 160.

  20. Hezekiah Brake, On Two Continents: A Long Life's Experiences (Topeka, Crane Publishing Company, 1896), 130.

  21. Josiah Gregg, 55-57.

  22. William Brown, The Santa Fe Trail (St. Louis, MO: The Patrice Press, 1988), 110.

  23. Josiah Gregg, 55-57 and 64-65; and aerial photographs of the Lower Cimarron Spring taken by James Walker in October 1993, and Social Conservation Service photographs of Grant County in the vicinity of the spring site dated April 1, 1939; August 12, 1953; July 2, 1960; May 3, 1967; July 5, 1973; May 14, 1981; and September 9, 1991.

  24. Beachum, 34. Becknell's 1822 expedition is the first recorded journey across the jornada.

  25. Josiah Gregg, 14.

  26. Hulbert, 73.

  27. Ibid.

  28. Josiah Gregg, 358 and 359.

  29. James A. Little, What I saw on the Old Santa Fe Trail (Plainfield, Indiana: The Friends Press, 1904), 41; Julius Froebel, Seven Years Travel in Central America, Northern Mexico, and the Far West of the United States (London, 1859), 280; and John McCoy, Pioneering on the Plains: Journey to Mexico in 1848; the Overland Trip to Californ ia (Kaukauna, Wisconsin: John McCoy, 1924), 22-23.

  30. Kate Gregg, The Road to Santa Fe: The Journal and Diaries of George Champlin Sibley and Others Pertaining to the Surveying and Marking of a Road from the Missouri Frontier to the Settlements of New Mexico, 1825-1827 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1952), 87-88.

  31. Ibid., 88. At this location, each second of latitude equals approximately one hundred feet; each second of longitude equals approximately eighty feet.

  32. Brown's map was reproduced in the Kansas City Star, August 4, 1925; a portion of it is also in Robert W. Baughman, Kansas in Maps (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1961), 30.

  33. Kate Gregg, 88-89. It must be noted that Sibley's description of the spring being at the southeast end of a valley conflicts with the latitude coordinates that he recorded, and which were later verified by Brown. It also conflicts with other historical accounts of the spring's location, including J. W. Dappert's description of the spring site, as well as the 1874 Government Land Office Survey of Grant County. It also conflicts with the physical evidence provided by archeological investigations of the campsite, the location of trail ruts, and the hydrological analysis of the area. Based on this evidence, Lower Cimarron Spring is located at the northwest end of a valley that is approximately 300 acres in size.

  34. Hulbert, 122.

  35. Wislizenus, 49-55; and James C. Hall, "Personal Recollections of the Santa Fe Trail," Kansas Magazine, January 1911.

  36. Oliva, 146, 154-155, and 160-161.

  37. Ulysses (Kansas) News, October 28, 1992, 16.

  38. J. W. Dappert, letter to the Ulysses News, January 1, 1944.

  39. R. R. Wilson and Ethel M . Sears, History of Grant County, Kansas (Wichita: Wichita Eagle Press, 1950), 242. The north door described in this account is the access door. The south end of the building, which faced the river, had a loading door that was determined through the archeological investigation of the site.

  40. Ibid.

  41. Lucille Towler Lew is, interview with Christine Whitacre and Steven De Vore of the National Park Service, September 18, 1993, Ulysses, Kansas; and Ulysses News, September 25, 1941. Lewis and her husband only lived away from the ranch for one year, 1919-1920. Years later, Lewis painted a picture of the spring site, which is now located in the Grant County Museum in Ulysses. The painting depicts the Towler-Lewis Ranch, the Towler Crossing of the Cimarron River, Wagon Bed Springs, and the DAR marker at the site.

  42. Although the marker is engraved with the year 1906, Towler's correspondence with the DAR and the State of Kansas indicates that it was placed at the site in 1907. E. F. Towler, letter to the Sec. of the Daughters of the Revolution, Washington D.C., January 15, 1907; E. F. Towler, letter to Geo. M. Martin, Topeka, Kansas, June 4, 1907; E. F. Tower, letter to Geo. M. Martin, Topeka, Kansas, November 23, 1907 [this letter includes a map showing the location of the marker]; and Ed Lewis [grandson of E. F. Towler] to Lysa Wegman-French, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, October 26, 1992. E.F. Towler served, variously, as the Grant County attorney and surveyor.

  43. Lucille Towler Lewis interview.

  44. Dappert letter.

  45. Dappert's letter includes this map. The map shows the spring site as being in the northwest quadrant of Section 33, but includ es a notation stating that the spring is "shown somewhat too far w est." This agrees with Dappert's statement that the spring was located on the Joyce homestead, which was in the northeast quadrant. The northwest quadrant of Section 33 was owned by Flora Bowman.

  46. Harry Joyce, interview with Christine Whitacre at Lower Cimarron Spring, near Ulysses, Kansas, September 17, 1993. The 1974 U.S. Geological Survey map shows Wagon Bed Spring at the location of the 1937 marker. Although the spring water was no longer surfacing at the time of the map survey, the U.S. Geological Survey identified it as such because of the presence of the historical marker.

  47. Joyce interview.

  48. "The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: The Santa Fe Trail," 23-II.

  49. Gutentag report; and Edwin D. Gutentag, letter to Christine Whitacre, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, December 16, 1994.

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