Major Bibliographical References
Wagonbed Spring

Major Bibliographical References
Barry, Louise, ed. The Beginning of the West: Annals of the Kansas Gateway to the American West, 1840-1854. Topeka: Kansas Historical Society, 1972.

Baughman, Robert W. Kansas in Maps.Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1961.

Beachum, Larry M. William Becknell: Father of the Santa Fe Trade. El Paso: University of Texas at El Paso, Texas Western Press, Southwestern Studies, Monograph No. 68, 1982.

Billington, Ray Allen. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier, 4th Edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1974.

Brake, Hezekiah. On Two Continents: A Long Life's Experiences. Topeka: Crane Publishing Company, 1896.

Brandon, William. Quivira, Europeans in the Region of the Santa Fe Trail, 1540-1820. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1990.

Brown, Lauren. The Audubon Society Nature Guides: Grasslands. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1984.

Brown, Merle J. "Climate." Soil Survey of Grant County, Kansas, by Vernon L. Hamilton,Quinten L. Markley, William R. Swafford, and Harold P. Dickey, 47-50. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.

Brown, William. The Santa Fe Trail. St. Louis, MO: Patrice Press, 1988.

Dappert, J. W. Letter to the Ulysses News, January 1, 1944.

De Vore, Steven. "Lower Cimarron Spring, Kansas, Archeological Field Summary." Denver, CO: National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 1993.

Dice, Lee R. The Biotic Provinces of North America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1943.

Draper, D. M. "Freight Trip to Ft. Wise, Colo." Ms., dated 1861. M72-161. Western History Department, Denver Public Library.

Fenneman, Nevin M. Physiography of Western United States. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 1931.

Froebel, Julius. Seven Years Travel in Central America, Northern Mexico, and the Far West of the United States. London, 1859.

Frye, J. C., A. B. Leonard, and A. Swineford. Stratigraphy of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) of Northern Kansas. Bulletin No. 118. Lawrence: Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, 1959.

Frye, J. C., and T.H.U. Smith. "Preliminary Observations on Pediment-Like Slopes in the Central High Plains." Journal of Geomorphology 5(3) (1942): 215-221.

Gutentag, Edwin D. "Location and Hydrological Characterization of Wagon Bed Spring, Grant County, Kansas." 1993.

_____. Letter to Christine Whitacre, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, December 16, 1994.

Gregg, Josiah. Commerce of the Prairies. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, edited by Max L. Moorhead, 1954. Originally published 1844.

Gregg, Kate. The Road to Santa Fe: The Journal and Diaries of George Champlin Sibley and Others Pertaining to the Surveying and Making of a Road from the Missouri Frontier to the Settlements of New Mazic-1827. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1952.

Hamilton, Vernon L., Quinten L. Markley, William R. Swafford, and Harold P. Dickey. Soil Survey of Grant County, Kansas. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.

Hulbert, Archer Butler. Southwest on the Turquoise Trail. Denver: Stewart Commission of Colorado College and the Denver Public Library, 1933.

Joyce, Harry. Interview with Christine Whitacre of the National Park Service at Lower Cimarron Spring site, September 17, 1993.

Lewis, Lucille Towler. Interview with Christine Whitacre and Steven De Vore of the National Park Service, Ulysses, Kansas, September 18, 1993.

Little, James A. What I Saw on the Old Santa Fe Trail. Plainfield, Indiana: The Friends Press, 1904.

Mattison, Ray. "Wagon Bed Spring; Lower Cimarron Spring National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings Form." 1958.

McCoy, John. Pioneering on the Plains: Journey to Mexico in 1848: the Overland Trip to California. Kaukauna, Wisconsin: John McCoy, 1924.

Meline, James F. Two Thousand Miles on Horseback, Santa Fe and Back. New York, 1867.

Mendinghall, Joseph S. "Wagon Bed Springs National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form." 1975.

O'Brien, Patricia J. Archeology of Kansas. Public Education Series No. 9. Lawrence: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1984.

Oliva, Leo E. Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

Olsen, Michael L. and Harry C. Myers. "The Diary of Pedro Ignacio Gallego Wherein 400 Soldiers Following the Trail of the Comanches Met William Becknell on his First Trip to Santa Fe." Wagon Tracks, Vol. 7, No. 1 (November 1992).

Rittenhouse, Jack D. The Santa Fe Trail: A Historical Bibliography. Albuquerque:University of New Mexico Press, 1971.

Robb, Andrew D. "Climate of Kansas." Climate and Man: Yearbook of Agriculture 1941: 873-883. House Document No.27, 77th Congress, 1st Session. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, United States Department of Agriculture, 1941.

Shelford, Victor E. The Ecology of North America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963.

Sprague, Roderick. "A Functional Classification for Artifacts from 19th and 20th Century Historical Sites." North American Archaeologist 2(3) (1980-1981): 251-261.

Stein, Martin. "Archeological Survey of Wagon Bed Springs." Memorandum dated August 1, 1990. Center for Historical Research, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.

Stocking, Hobart E. The Road to Santa Fe. New York: Hastings House, 1971.

Taylor, Morris F. First Mail West: Stagecoach Lines on the Santa Fe Trail. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971.

Towler, E. F. Letter to the Sec. of the Daughters of the Revolution, Washington, D.C., January 15, 1907. Copy in the files of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

_____. Letter to Geo. M. Martin, Topeka, Kansas, June 4, 1907. Copy in the files of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

_____. Letter to Geo. M. Martin, Topeka, Kansas, November 23, 1907. Copy in the files of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

Trewartha, Glenn T., and Lyle H. Horn. An Introduction to Climate. Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. Originally published 1937.

Ulysses [Kansas] News. September 25, 1941.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. "The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: The Santa Fe Trail." 1963.

_____. Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan. May 1990.

Walker, James. "Interpretation of area around Wagon Bed Springs from USDA Imagery obtained between 1939 and 1991, Report No. 2." 1993. Copy in the files of the National Park Service, Omaha, Nebraska.

Walstrom, Jack W. "Wildlife." Soil Survey of Grant County, Kansas, by Vernon L. Hamilton, Quinten L. Markley, William R. Swafford, and Harold P. Dickey. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. New York: Ginn and Company. 1931.

Whitacre, Christine and Steven De Vore and William Butler. Lower Cimarron (Wagon Bed) Spring Camp Site,National Historic Landmark (National Historic Landmark) Boundary Study. Denver, CO: National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 1994.

Wilson, F. "Landscapes: A Geological Diary." Kansas Geology: An Introduction to Landscapes, Rocks, Minerals, and Fossils, edited by Rex Buchanan, 9-39. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1984.

Wilson, R. R., and Ethel M. Sears. History of Grant County, Kansas. Wichita: Wichita Eagle Press, 1950.

Wislizenus, Adolphus. Memoir of a Tour to Northern Mexico, connected with Col.Doniphan's Expedition in 1846 and 1847. Washington, D.C.: 30th Congress, 1st session, Senate Miscellaneous Document, 1848.

Wood, W. Raymond, comp. An Atlas of Early Maps of the Midwest. Illinois State Museum, Scientific Papers, Vol. XVIII. Springfield: Illinois State Museum, 1983.

Previous documentation on file (NPS):
Preliminary Determination of Individual Listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested.

X Previously Listed in the National Register.

Previously Determined Eligible by the National Register.

X Designated a National Historic Landmark.

Recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey: #

Recorded by Historic American Engineering Record:

Primary Location of Additional Data:

X State Historic Preservation Office

Other State Agency

X Federal Agency

Local Government

University

X Other (Specify Repository): Grant County Museum

Geographical Data
Acreage of Property: 195 acres (approximate)

UTM References: Zone Easting Northing

A 14 289950 4142730

B 14 290859 4142467

C 14 290800 4141170

D 14 289770 4141560

Verbal Boundary Description:
The Lower Cimarron Spring National Historic Landmark is located on the valley side slopes, alluvial fans, and flood plain of a sharp bend of the Cimarron River in the south of Section 28 and the north of Section 33, Township 30 South, Range 37 West, Grant County, Kansas. The boundary of the National Historic Landmark forms a polygon with outward curving sides. The N-S axis measures approximately 1200 meters in length and the NE-SW axis measures approximately 1,300 meters in length. Beginning at the N axis point and going clockwise, the sides of the polygon measure 500 meters, 1280 meters, 520 meters, and 1100 meters in length. It is outlined on the accompanying U.S.G.S. map.

Boundary Justification:
The boundary of the Lower Cimarron (Wagon Bed) Spring National Historic Landmark encompasses the historic spring site, the surrounding lands that have a high concentration of trail-related artifacts and that represent the area's historic use as a major Santa Fe Trail campground and the original (mistaken) spring location of the National Historic Landmark as designated in 1960. The boundary encompasses approximately 195 acres, and includes numerous Santa Fe Trail ruts that lead to and from the spring, including a segment that is just north of the spring. The boundary also includes North Latitude 3724'00", which government surveyors George C. Sibley and Joseph C. Brown identified as the location of the "famous Semerone [Cimarron] Spring" in September 1825. The general location of the spring is also supported by the 1874 Government Land Office Survey of Grant County. More specific locational information on the spring is provided by oral and written accounts of early homesteaders and residents of Grant County, including County Surveyor J.W. Dappert who mapped the location of "Wagon Bed Spring." The discovery of the remains of the Joyce-Dappert ice house, which historical accounts indicate was just north of the spring, places the spring in the bend of the Cimarron River within the National Historic Landmark boundary. A hydrological analysis of the area by Edwin Gutentag also places the spring in this location. The size and extent of the camp site surrounding the spring was determined by metal-detection survey, shovel excavations, and surface artifact collection done by Edward Dowell of Ulysses, Kansas. Dowell's identification of the distribution of metal artifacts initiated the National Historic Landmark boundary revision, and indicate that the core of the Lower Cimarron Spring campground is within the boundary. NPS archaeologists, who discovered the ice house remains and oversaw low-altitude aerial photography of the area, agreed with Dowell's conclusions. Based on Dowell's metal detection, there are over 14 inches of archeological deposits associated with the campground, indicating that the potential for recovering additional information within the National Historic Landmark boundary is extremely high.

Designated a National Historic Landmark
July 17, 1998

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