The Wet/Dry Routes
on the
Santa Fe Trail
"Footnotes"

  1. Randolph B. Marcy, The Prairie Traveler: A hand-Book for Overland Expeditions (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1859), 261.

  2. Elliot Coues, ed., The Journal of Jacob Fowler (Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, 1965), 24-29. In the fall of 1821 and again in 1822, William Becknell crossed the Arkansas east of Walnut Creek and proceeded south of the river on his first two trips to Santa Fe. Louise Barry, The Beginning of the West (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1972), 97. 105.

  3. Ibid., 105, 108, 110, 116.

  4. Kate L. Gregg, ed., The Road to Santa Fe: The Journal and Diaries of George Champlin Sibley (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1952), 72-77; Barry, Beginning of the West, 119-151.

  5. Leo E. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail,(Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 25-33.

  6. Barry, Beginning of the West,233-34. Wycliffe's trip was the first documented use of the dry route. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail, 36.

  7. Paul Horgan, Josiah Gregg and His Vision of the Early West (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979), 11; Josiah Gregg, Commerce of the Prairies (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 217. See also Lt. W. B. Franklin's 1845 map, Barry, Beginning of the West, 609; James Josiah Webb, Adventures in the Santa Fe Trade, 1844-1847, The Southwest Historical Series, vol. 1 (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1931), 52. Gregg's estimate of thirty-three miles between Pawnee Fork and Coon Creek is inaccurate. The distance measures twenty-seven miles.

  8. Stella M. Drumm, ed., Down The Santa Fe Trail and Into Mexico: The Diary of Susan Shelby Magoffin, 1846-1847 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 40-50.

  9. Barry, Beginning of the West, 1092.

  10. Ibid., 1092, 949.

  11. H. B. Mollhausen, "Over the Santa Fe Trail Through Kansas in 1858," Kansas Historical Quarterly 16 (November 1948): 348.

  12. "The Diary of Augustus Voorhees, in Pike's Peak Gold Rush Guidebooks of 1859, The Southwest Historical Series, vol. 9 (1941), 341.

  13. Leo E. Oliva, Fort Larned on the Santa Fe Trail (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1982), 7; Marcy, Prairie Traveler, 261.

  14. Oliva, Fort Larned, 7-8, 9-11; Military Campaign Map, State of Kansas, 1872, Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. (Hereafter RG 77, National Archives).

  15. Barry, Beginning of the West, 1092; Capt. William J. Lyster, Commanding Officer, Fort Larned, to Asst. Adjutant General, Department of Missouri, May 28, 1877, Post Orders, Letters Sent and Letters Received, Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920, Record Group 393, roll 2, pt. 1, National Archives and Records Service.

  16. Gregg, The Road to Santa Fe, 72-73.

  17. Webb, Adventures in the Santa Fe Trade, 51-52.

  18. Gregg, The Road to Santa Fe, 73.

  19. Otis E. Young, The First Military Escort on the Santa Fe Trail, 1829, (Glendale, Calif.: A. H. Clark Co., 1952) 82. This stream, the main branch of Coon Creek, originates in Ford County and runs north through Edwards and Pawnee Counties before emptying into the Arkansas River about a half mile northeast of the crossing.

  20. Marcy, The Prairie Traveler, 261. Southwest of Larned, U.S. Highway 56 replicates the wet route for seventeen miles as the highway was essentially constructed over the very ruts of the trail.

  21. Charles J. Folsom, Mexico in 1842 (New York: Wiley and Putnam; Robinson, Pratt and Co., 1842), 133-34. Reprinted in "Trail Trip, 1841," Wagon Tracks Santa Fe Trail Newsletter, 3 (November 1988): 14 and (February 1989): 9-10.

  22. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail, 82-84. Barry, Beginning of the West, 694-95. Bvt. Maj. Henry Kendrick's 1849 itinerary puts Love's Defeat at 16.57 miles from Pawnee Fork. Barry Beginning of the West, 815. Kendrick's calculation compares favorably with Henry Smith Turner's 1846 measurement from Kearny's forces en route to the Mexican War. Dwight L. Clarke, ed., The Original Journals of Henry Smith Turner (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966), 63.

  23. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail 87-89.

  24. Barry, Beginning of the West, 757-758.

  25. Ibid.; Marcy, Prairie Traveler, 262; Folsom, Mexico In 1842, 133-134.

  26. Folsom, Mexico in 1842, 133-134.

  27. Capt. Gabriel de Korponay to Col. John Gilpin, July 12, 1848, Korponay to Garland, July 12, 1848, AGO Letters Received, 340G 1848, Records of the Office of the Adjutant General, Record Group 94, National Archives and Records Service.

  28. Author's interviews with Duane Alexander and Albert Birzer, June 10, 1990.

  29. "The Arkansas Route: the Diary of Charles C. Post," in Overland Routes to the Gold Fields 1859 From Contemporary Diaries, The Southwest Historical Series, vol. 11 (1942), 42.

  30. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail, 17.

  31. Folsom, Mexico in 1842, 133-34.; Seymour V. Connor and Jimmy M. Skaggs, Broadcloth and Britches: The Santa Fe Trade (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1976), 113.

  32. Marcy, Prairie Traveler, 261; Barry, Beginning of the West, 619; John Galvin, ed., Western America in 1846-1847: The Original Travel Diary of Lieutenant J. W. Abert (San Francisco: John Howell-Books, 1966), 15; Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail, 45-48.

  33. "The Parsons Guidebook," in Pike's Peak Gold Rush Guidebooks of 1859, 176; Webb, Adventures in the Santa Fe Trade, 52; Two Diaries: The Diary & Journal Of Calvin Petty Clark…together with the Diary of his Sister Helen E Clark, (Denver: Denver Public Library, 1962), 7.

  34. Barry, Beginning of the West, 700, 691, 698, 948; Donald Chaput, Francois X. Aubry: Trader, Trailmaker and Voyageur in the Southwest, 1846-1854 (Glendale, Calif.: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1975), 216.

  35. Glavin, Western America in 1846, 14-15.

  36. Barry, Beginning of the West, 1092; "The Diary of Augustus Voorhees," 341. Measuring from the eastern terminus southwest of Ash Creek in the post-1859 period, the wet route totaled sixty-eight miles compared to sixty-one and a half miles for the dry route, a difference of six and a half miles. Captain Lyster, in 1877, compared the distances of the two route using Fort Larned as the point of origin. Lyster calculated the wet route to be eight and 16/100 miles longer than the dry route.

  37. "The Diary of Augustus Voorhees," 341. For distances from the Kansas City area to the Pike's Peak gold regions, See Western Journal of Commerce, Kansas City, MO., November 6, 1858; Westport Border Star, January 28, 1859; Pease and Cole, Complete Guide to the Gold Districts of Kansas and Nebraska (Chicago: Wm. H. Rand, 1859), 10; O. B. Gunn, New Map and Hand Book of Kansas & the Gold Mines (Pittsburgh: W. S. Haven, 1859), 46. See also Lt. William H. Emory's 1847 map in Barry, Beginning of the West, 810.

  38. Barry, Beginning of the West, 1092; Webb, Adventures in the Santa Fe Trade, 52; "Journal of Abraham Robinson Johnston, 1846," in Marching With the Army of the West, 1846-1848, The Southwest Historical Series, vol. 4 (1936), 85. Johnston's observation is complemented by John Udell's 1859 Journal entry for May 20: "Traveled four miles. Wood near the road which is the last." John Udell, John Udell Journal (Los Angeles N. A. Kovach, 1946), 9.

  39. James Brice, Reminiscences of Ten Years Experience on the Western Plains (Kansas City, Mo.: n. d.); Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail, 117-18; Morris F. Taylor, First Mail West ( Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 62-63. Barton H. Barbour, ed., Frontiersman (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1990), 78.

  40. W. W. H. Davis, El Gringo: New Mexico and Her People (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 29-30.

  41. Barry, Beginning of the West, 526. In this account, Little Coon Creek is called Father Coon Creek.

  42. Ibid., 1185.

  43. Ibid., 810-11.

  44. Capt. Lyster to Asst. Adjutant General. This crossing was called the lower crossing as compared with another crossing about two miles upstream. Map of Fort Larned and area, 1864, RG 77, National Archives; 1865 Diary of William Ladd, author's private Collection.

  45. Henry Booth, "Centennial History of Pawnee County" (Unpublished Manuscript, 1876), Santa Fe Trail Center Library, Larned, Kansas.

  46. David K. Clapsaddle, A. H. Boyd, Entrepreneur of the Prairie (Larned, Kansas: Larned Tiller and Toiler, n. d.), 9-20.

  47. Oliva, Fort Larned, 7.

  48. Robert W. Baugham Kansas Post Offices (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1961), 99, 215.

  49. Oliva, Fort Larned 7-11.

  50. "Statement of Theodore Weichselbaum, of Ogden, Riley County, July 17 1908," Kansas Historical Collections, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 562; Brice, Reminiscences of Ten Years Experience on the Western Plains, 11.

  51. W. Stitt Robinson, ed., "The Kiowa and Comanche Campaign of 1860 as Recorded in the Personal Diary of Lt. J. E. B. Stuart," Kansas Historical Quarterly 23 (Winter 1957): 391.

  52. Map of Ft. Larned and Area, 1864, RG 77, National Archives.

  53. Medical History of Fort Larned, vol. 164-67, p. 2, RG 94, National Archives; Capt. Lyster to Asst. Adjutant General; 1860 Diary of William Ladd, author's personal collection.

  54. Baugham, Kansas Post Offices, 46; The Hancock Expedition, Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General; 1869, RG 94, roll 563, National Archives; Capt. Lyster to Asst. Adjutant General.

  55. Hancock Expedition, RG 94, National Archives.

  56. "Route of Sanderson's Southern Overland Stage Company," Junction City Union August 4, 1866.

  57. Ibid. Ironically, the tributary of Coon Creek, called Big Coon Creek in the post-1859 period, is known as Little Coon Creek in this century; Taylor, First Mail West, 95, 122; Connor and Skaggs, Broadcloth and Britches, 175-76; George A. Root, " Reminiscences of William Darnell," Kansas Historical Collections 1926-1928 17 (1928): 506-7.

  58. Robert M. Wright, Dodge City, The Cowboy Capital and the Great Southwest ( Wichita, Kans. Wichita Eagle, 1913), 108. According to Jack Montgomery of Kinsley, Kansas, some walls were still standing about a fourth mile southwest of the crossing as late as 1885. Montgomery's grandfather settled at the crossing in the 1870's author's interview with Jack Montgomery, June 24, 1990.

  59. "Route of Sanderson's Southern Overland Stage Company," Junction City Union, August 4, 1866.

  60. Ibid.; Capt. Lyster to Asst. Adjutant General; Charles Raber, "Life on the Plains, 1860 to 1868," Kansas Historical Collections 1923-1925 16 (1925): 338-39, in this account, Little Coon creek is called Dry Coon Creek. During the post-1859 period, this stream was also known as Whitewater and White Creek, "The Parsons Guidebook," 177, and "The Diary of Augustus Voorhees," 341. Although called Little Coon Creek, the stream was the main branch of Coon Creek, not a tributary.

  61. Military Campaign Map, State of Kansas, 1872, RG 77, National Archives.

  62. Ibid.; Capt. Lyster to Asst. Adjutant General.

  63. Santa Fe Trail Ruts (Fort Larned National Historic Site, National Park Service, n. d.).

  64. Taylor, First Mail West, 107; David Kay Strate, Sentinel to the Cimarron: The Frontier Experience of Fort Dodge, Kansas (Dodge City: Cultural Heritage and Arts Center, 1970), 12; R. M. Wright, "Personal Reminiscences of Frontier Life in Southwest Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 50.

  65. Taylor, First Mail West, 123.
    Used With Permission of the Author:
    David Clapsaddle

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