The Wet/Dry Routes
of the
Santa Fe Trail

  1. Elliott Cues, ed., "The Journal of Jacob Fowler Narrating An Adventure From Arkansas Through the Indian Territory", Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, To the Sources of Rio Grande De Norte, 1821-22 (Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, Inc., 1965), 156.

  2. Otis E. Young, "The First Military Escort on the Santa Fe Trail 1829:" From the Journal and Reports of Major Bennet Riley and Lieutenant Philip St. George Cooke (Glendale, CA: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1952), 151.

  3. Louise Barry, "The Beginning of the West" (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1972), 233-34.

  4. "The Diary Of Augustus Voorhees" in Pike's Peak Gold Rush Guidebooks of 1859, The Southwest Historical Series, vol. 9 (1941), 341. For distances from the Kansas City area to the Pike's Peak gold regions, see "Western Journal of Commerce" Kansas City, Mo., November 6, 1858; Westport Border Star, January 28, 1859; Pease and Cole, Complete Guide to the Gold Districts of Kansas and Nebraska (Chicago: Wm. H. Rand, 1859), 10; O.B. Gunn, New Map and Hand Book of Kansas & Gold Mines (Pittsburgh: W. S. Haven, 1859), 46. See also Lt. William H. Emory's 1847 map in Barry, "Beginning of the West" 810.

  5. Barry, "Beginning of the West" 1092.

  6. Kate L. Gregg, ed., "The Road to Santa Fe: The Journal and Diaries of George Champlin Sibley" (Albuquerque: Press, University of New Mexico 1952), 73.

  7. James Josiah Webb, "Adventures in the Santa Fe Trade" 1844-1847, The Southwest Historical Series, vol. 1 (Glendale, Calif: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1931), 51-52.

  8. Kate L. Gregg, "The Road to Santa Fe" 73.

  9. Interview with Cecil Johnson, Larned, Kansas, January 6, 1998.

  10. John Galvin, ed., "Western American in 1846-1847: The Original Travel Diary of Lieutenant J. W. Abert" (San Francisco: John Howell-Books, 1966), 15.

  11. James Brice, "Reminiscences of Ten Years Experience on the Western Plains" (Kansas City, Mo., n.d.).

  12. Barton H. Barbour, ed., "Reluctant Frontiersman" (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990), 78.

  13. Morris F. Taylor, "First Mail West" (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 62-63.

  14. Josiah Gregg, "Commerce of the Prairies" (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954), 217, map following p. 58.

  15. Stella M. Drumm, ed., "The Diary of Susan Shelby Magoffin, 1846- 1847: Down the Santa Fe Trail and Into Mexico" (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962), 48.

  16. Josiah Gregg, "Commerce of the Prairies" 217.

  17. Barry, "Beginning of the West" 811.

  18. "The Diary of Augustus Voorhees" 341.

  19. Barry, "Beginning of the West" 1092.

  20. Ibid., 815.

  21. Ibid., 810.

  22. Ibid., 1092

  23. Randolph B. Marcy, "The Prairie Traveler; a Handbook for Overland Expeditions" (New York; Harper & Brothers, 1859), 261.

  24. Capt. William J. Lyster, Commanding officer, Fort Larned, to Asst. Adjutant General, Department of Missouri, May 28, 1877, Post Orders, Letters Sent and Letters Received, Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920, Record Group 393, roll 2, pt. 1, National Archives and Records Service.

  25. Leo E. Oliva, "Fort Larned on the Santa Fe Trail" (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1985), 7-11; There has been dispute as to the site of Camp in Pawnee Fork (changed to Camp Alert in February 1860). The following citations are intended to clarify the little post's location. Theodore Weichselbaum recalled Camp Alert as being "right across the timbered ravine, northeast of where they were building Fort Larned.11 Such a location would have been near the mail station. Just east of the mail station, a bridge was constructed across the Pawnee during the winter of 1859-1860 by Butze and Lieutenant Bell. The bridge, according to Robert Peck, was a private enterprise for which Butze and Bell were never paid. Reporting the bridge in his May 23, 1860 diary entry, Lt. J. E. B. Stuart described Camp Alert as being on the west above the bridge. As such, Stuart's description confirms Weichselbaum's statement concerning the site of Camp Alert. "Statement of Theodore Weichselbaum, of Ogden, Riley County, July 17, 1908, "Kansas Historical Collections," 190-9-1-910 11 (1910): 562; Brice, Reminiscences of Tan Years Experience on the Western Plains, 11. W. Stitt Robinson, ed., "The Kiowas and Comanche Campaign of 1860 as Recorded in the Personal Diary of Lt. J. E. B. Stuart," Kansas Historical Quarterly 23 (Winter 1957): 391.

  26. "Military Campaign Map" State of Kansas, 1872, Records of the office of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives and Records Service, Washington, D.C. [Hereafter cited RG 77, National Archives.]

  27. Capt. Lyster to Asst. Adjutant General

  28. Henry Booth, "Centennial History of Pawnee County" (Unpublished manuscript, 1876), Santa Fe Trail Center Library, Larned.

  29. "Map of Ft. Larned and Area, 1864" RG 77, National Archives.

  30. "Route of Sanderson's Southern Overland Stage Company" Junction City Union, August 4, 1866.

  31. Barry, "Beginning of the West" 1092.

  32. W. W. H. Davis, "El Gringo: New Mexico and Her People" (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982), 29-30.

  33. Taylor, "First Mail West" 95, Robert M. Wright, Dodge City, The Cowboy Capital and the Great Southwest, (Wichita, Kans.: Wichita Eagle, 1913), 108. According to Jack Montgomery of Kinsley, Kansas, some walls were still standing about-one-fourth mile southwest of the crossing as late as 1885. Montgomery's grandfather settled at the crossing in the 1870s, author's interview with Jack Montgomery, June 24, 1990. Maj. M. H. Kidd, commanding officer, Fort Larned to Asst. Adjutant General, Dept. of the Missouri, July 17, 1867, Post Orders, Letters Sent, and Letter Received, Records of the U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920, Record Group 393, roll 2, Pt. 1, National Archives.

  34. "Lawrence, Kansas Weekly Tribune", January 25, 1866.

  35. Barry, "Beginning of the West" 1185.

  36. "Lawrence, Kansas Weekly Tribune" January 25, 1866.

  37. "The Hancock Expedition" Letters Received by the Office of the Adjutant General, 1869, RG 94, roll 563, National Archives.

  38. "Military Campaign Map" State of Kansas, 1872, RG 77, National Archives.

  39. Barry, "Beginning of the West" 1092.

  40. H. B. Mollhausen, "Over the Santa Fe Trail Through Kansas in 1858" Kansas Historical Quarterly 16 (November 1948): 348.

  41. Taylor, "First Mail West" 123.
    Used With Permission of the Author:
    David Clapsaddle

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