IV - Fort Aubry, Kansas

Site of Fort Aubry Kansas
Site of Fort Aubry, Kansas

     In the infancy of the Santa Fe Trail, the trader took his protection with him in the form of a side arm or long rifle. Later, as the number of Americans using the trail increased and as the amount and value of goods transported on the trail multiplied, there was a growing demand for professional protection. The United States Army was asked to escort the traders across the rolling plains and to shield them from all the accompanying perils. Most of the trouble encountered by the traders came from the Indians and from trail bandits, but there were also cases of harassment by the Mexican government as well. Until the army began to offer escorts to the trains, there really was no law between the Missouri River and Santa Fe, except that law which was created as it was needed. There was only the tremendously spacious countryside where travelers were at the mercy of the elements, the Indians, and any brigands who might venture near.

     The problems that developed with the Indians came mainly from marauding bands of renegades demanding tribute from an wagon train to insure it against attack. There were cases, however, of full-scale Indian wars, were tribes of Indians joined together to protect what they considered to be their land and their rights. In order to guard the travelers and traders along the Santa Fe Trail from these dangers, the United States Army built a series of forts and posts along the trail at several strategic locations. The forts, such as Larned, Dodge, and Lyon, etc., were permanent establishments with buildings constructed of field stone or native timber, if it was available. Some of these buildings are still in use today, for one reason or another.

     In order to keep a good line of communication open and to gain the full measure of protection for the travelers, many smaller posts were established. These posts were, for the most part, simply temporary establishments and were never meant to become anything else, as it shown by the orders creating them. They were located at points along the trail where water was readily available and where they would be in a good position to serve the next post or fort along the way. Most of these posts had some permanent buildings constructed of native field stone, or, occasionally, timber. Because wood was generally scarce in the western portion of the plains area, posts in this area had to use sod, adobe brick, and even caves and dugouts. The jails were very crude, very small, and rough hewn. The jail from Fort Dodge, now sitting in the Boothill complex at Dodge City, Kansas, can testify to the crudeness of the jails during this expansionist period of the United States. It is a small five by eight feet, rough-hewn log structure, only six feet tall, and containing three cells. Many of the jails used at these forts, however, were not even this glamorous. Often, they were merely open pits dug into the ground, perhaps topped with reeds or long prairie grass. All of the forts and posts used some tents to supplement the few permanent structures. Very few forts along the trail actually had the wooden walls which are a part of the modern concept of the western American fort.

     The forts were all built in a square arrangement that was most easily defended. All the buildings faces inward, looking upon a central compound area. In case of a prolonged attack by Indians, the fort could be enclosed with relative ease by the placement of loaded wagons in the open areas.

     These posts and forts were all used by troopers during Indian uprisings, when the army would order a number of men to take up a specific position at one of them. Even while not in used by soldiers, however, the posts were used by others. Troopers, while on missions of one kind or another might camp there, as would caravans. Occasionally, Indians met at them, perhaps with government representatives, to talk. On many occasions they were used by travelers, military and otherwise, as havens at nightfall and in bad weather. Because they were always near portable water, they made good resting places for weary trail wonderers. They also became landmarks and were used in giving directions across the prairie.

     Several of these posts were graced with the name of "fort" at different times during their existence. Occasionally, the location of a post rendered it to better use as a major fort, if its location was strategic during Indian troubles.

     One such army post, that later became a fort, was known as Fort Aubry. It was situated at Aubry's Crossing of the Arkansas River and was an ideally placed establishment. This was the junction of Aubry's Trail and the Bent Fort Route of the Santa Fe Trail. There was always a constant supply of fresh water from an abundant spring which ran nearby. The spring, in fact, had gradually become known as Aubry's Spring, even before the establishment of the army post, because of its proximity to Aubry's Crossing and cutoff. It was Aubry's favorite campground whenever he was in the area. The post and later the fort naturally bore his name.

     This chosen spot was on a desolate and long stretch of the Santa Fe Trail which had been subject to frequent Indian attacks. The Indians, hiding in the abundant sandhills which lay just south of the river, would strike out quickly against the wagon trains, and then, just as quickly, retreat back across the river and into the sand hills. Troopers stationed at this location could easily work out to Fort Lyon, approximately fifty miles west and to Fort Dodge, about one hundred miles to the east. In addition, they could work south to the Cold Spring Campground and so protect travelers all along this portion of the trail.

     The locality was first a campground, used by both the army and by travelers. During the 1830's and 1840's it was used to some extent, but during the 1850's, following the opening of Aubry's Route, it became the regular campground for all travelers in the area. In the 1850's Camp Wyncoop was created by the army at the site. It was used in the transportation of supplies to Santa Fe and Fort Lyon and as a temporary resting place for troopers on long trips. During Indian outbreaks, troopers were sent to the site from both Fort Dodge and Fort Lyon, where they would remain until the trouble was squelched. They then would return to their home fort. Of course, what structures were located at Camp Wyncoop could easily be converted into a more permanent establishment.

     During the mid-1860's, particularly in 1865, the Indian wars became so intense and frequent in the area between Fort Lyon and Fort Dodge that it was deemed necessary to fortify some of the posts and camps between the two, in order to protect the travelers. Camp Wyncoop was one of those designated by the army to become a permanently manned fort.

     On September 15, 1865, Major General W. L. Elliott, Commander of the District of Kansas, and stationed at Fort Leavenworth, sent a letter to the commanding officer at Fort Lyon. The letter contained special Order Number Twenty and it authorized the establishment of a fort on the site of Camp Wyncoop and also prescribed that the name given the fort be "Fort Aubrey." The letter said, "The post to be established on Aubry's Crossing of the Arkansas, formerly Camp Wyncoop, will be known as Fort Aubry." [1]

     The letter arrived at Fort Lyon on September 20 and by September 25, Captain W. S. Parker, from Fort Leavenworth, and his group of ninety-two men and fifty-seven horses, were at the site. This group was Company "K" of the Thirteenth Missouri Volunteer Cavalry and it set about immediately establishing a permanent post. Captain Parker was the only officer with this group at the time of its occupation of the post.

     Most authors mentioning Fort Aubry give Captain Adolph Wittman of Company "D", Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry, the credit for the establishment of the fort. Captain Wittman's group was accompanied by Company "K" of the Forty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. On the first post return from Fort Aubry, however, dated October 10, 1865, the post was commanded by Captain Parker, Company "K", Thirteenth Missouri Volunteer Cavalry. Company "K" had been at the post for some time prior to the arrival of Companies "D" and "F" with Captain Wittman. In actuality, Captain Wittman did not arrive until October 10, 1865, as verified by the October 10, 1865, post return. [2] The date of the establishment of the fort has also been in question. Most sources give the time of establishment as early September, 1865, but actually the letter authorizing the creation of a permanent fort was dated, as previously stated, September 15, 1865, and it was not received at Fort Lyon until September 20, 1865.

     There was one other officer carried on the rolls as absent without leave in Company "K", Thirteenth Missouri Cavalry, at the time of the establishment of Fort Aubry. Lieutenant Thomas Doyle was listed as A.W.O.L. on September 6, 1865, and he did not return to duty with his company until October 9, 1865. Per Special Order Number Forty-six, district of Kansas, Lieutenant Doyle resumed his stint in the cavalry at Fort Aubry. [3]

     When he arrived at Fort Aubry, Captain Parker was in command of a troop of ninety-two men and fifty-seven horses. He was the only officer present with his company at the time of occupation of the fort. He had eight sergeants, eight corporals, two musicians, one blacksmith, and seventy enlisted men with him. [4] Captain Parker remained the commander of the fort until December 12, 1865, when he and his troops were ordered to return to Fort Leavenworth.

     There was a steady build-up of troop strength at Fort Aubry throughout the months of early fall. On October 7, 1865, per Special Order Number Four, District of Kansas, Companies "D" and "F" of the Forty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry arrived. They came from Fort Lyon. Company "D" was, as mentioned, under the command of Captain Adolf Wittman. Captain A. J. Lumsden commanded Company "F" Together these companies added 140 men to the complement at Fort Aubry, including six new officers, ten sergeants, sixteen corporals, and 110 privates. Two officers with the companies were listed as absent. Of the total group, sixty-nine belonged to Captain Wittman's company while seventy-one were with Captain Lumsden's company.

     Arriving with the two new companies was a welcome addition to Fort Aubry, as it would have been to any frontier fort. The new asset was Post Surgeon H. E. Zielley, Assistant Surgeon, Forty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. [5]

     On October 17, 1865, Company "D", thirteenth Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, under the command of First Lieutenant T. J. Shinn, arrived to reinforce the garrison at the new fort. Their arrival was authorized by Special Order Number Twenty-four, District of Kansas. This group added three officers and seventy-four enlisted men to the fort complement. Those who held special duties were eight who were sergeants, eight corporals, two musicians, and one blacksmith. On enlisted man was lost immediately through a transfer to Fort Leavenworth. Lieutenant Shinn also brought forty-nine horses with him, bringing the total number of horses at the fort to 121. [6]

     These are the last reinforcements to arrive at Fort Aubry in October and they made the total number of men there somewhere over 300. The names and duties of the officers stationed at the fort at this time appeared in Figure Two. [7]

     During the month of November at Fort Aubry, the number of men there remained fairly constant. The only fluctuations were normal, due to medical reasons or termination of service periods. At the end of November the same companies of men were at Fort Aubry as had been there at the first of the month and nine men had been lost due to normal causes. Four men were ordered discharged for disability, apparently due to non-combatant causes and two men were discharged for promotions. One man, Second Lieutenant C. Amman, Company "F", Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry, was carried on the roll, although he was ordered mustered out by Special Order Number 108, Headquarters Military Division of Missouri, dated September 4, 1865. One man was discharged by telegraphic order from the War Department. [8]

     No major battles were recorded at Fort Aubry during this period, although the soldiers did engage in many small skirmishes with the Indians while out on patrol in the area and while on escort duty to wagon trains along the Santa Fe Trail. The final post return for the month of November shows the strength of Fort Aubry at 297 men and 129 horses. There are in this group, four captains, seven lieutenants, twenty-six sergeants, thirty-two corporals, six musicians, four blacksmiths, and 208 privates. Also, at this time, Lt. Thomas Doyle had rejoined his company after being absent without leave and he resumed a position on the active roll. Lt. Amman had been mustered out. [9]

     On December 3, 1865, Company "M", Second United States Cavalry, under the command of Lieutenant A. S. Adams arrived at the fort as per Special Order Number 117, Headquarter, District of Kansas. The order, dated November 17, 1865, came from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Lieutenant Adams's Company consisted of himself as the sole officer, three sergeants, five corporals, and thirty-seven privates, for a total of forty-six men. This brought the total complement of troops stationed at Fort Aubry to 363 men in three companies of cavalry and two companies of infantry. He also added fifty four horses to those already at the fort and that made a total of 182 horses there as of December 10, 1865. [10]

     The same Special Order 117 also ordered Captain Parker and Lieutenant Shinn to take their companies "D" and "K" of the Thirteenth Missouri Cavalry to Fort Leavenworth. [11] They left Fort Aubry on December 12, 1865.

Figure Two
W. S. ParkerCaptain13th Missouri Cav."K"Commander of Fort Post Hospital
H. E. ZielleyAssistant Surgeon48th Wisconsin Inf.  
A. WittmenCaptain48th Wisconsin Inf."D"Company Commander
A. J. LumsdenCaptain48th Wisconsin Inf."F"Sick at Post Hospital
T. J. ShinnFirst Lieutenant13th Missouri Cav."D"Company Commander
F. DavisFirst Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."D"Company Commander
G. S. RogersFirst Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."F"On duty with company
John VietsSecond Lieutenant13th Missouri Cav."D"On duty with company
J. D. ParksSecond Lieutenant13th Missouri Cav."K"A.A.G.M. Post
J. E. BrownSecond Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."D"Adjutant
Fred ScuylerCaptain13th Missouri Cav."D"Assistant adjutant general per
Special Order Number 68 dated
February 10, 1865, from the
War Department
Thomas DoyleFirst Lieutenant13th Missouri Cav."K"Absent Without Leave Since
September 6, 1865
C. AmmanSecond Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."F"Absent without leave since
October 1, 1865
Taken from Post Return from Fort Aubry received at District of Kansas,
Fort Leavenworth on November 9, 1865

     Captain Adolf Wittman then assumed the position as commander of Fort Aubry following Captain Parker's departure, although the orders designating him as commander also indicate that it is to be a short tenure as he is to go to Fort Leavenworth in January. He was the senior officer at the Fort at the time and was in line to assume the responsibility of commander of the garrison. Fort Aubry, under Captain Wittman, then, consisted of Company "D" and Company "F" or the Forty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry and Company "M" of the Second United States Cavalry. This command had a total complement of six officers and 195 listed men, plus one assistant surgeon. This number remained constant through most of December. The monthly post return listed 198 men at the post and also gave all the names of the officers. [12] This list appears in [Figure Three].

     On January 20, 1866, the post received some reinforcements. Company "H", First Battalion, United States Infantry, was ordered to Fort Aubry by Special Order Number 149, Headquarters, Second District of Kansas at Fort Leavenworth. Company "H" was commanded by Captan Anson Mills and it included five sergeants, two corporals, two musicians, and fifty-nine privates. According to the order, Captain Mills was to replace Captain Wittman as the commander of the Fort. [13]

     On January 21, 1866 Captan Wittman left Fort Aubry with Companies "D" and "F" Forty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry to Fort Leavenworth. Accompanying Captain Wittman was Assistant Surgeon H. E. Zielley. He was scheduled to be mustered out of the service at Fort Leavenworth. [14]

     While at Fort Aubry, Captain Mills had under his command two lieutenants, twelve sergeants, seven corporals, three musicians, one blacksmith, and 104 privates. For the names and duties of the officers stationed at Fort Aubry at this time see [Figure Four]. [15]

     The reduced supply of troops was replenished on February 19, 1866, with Company "C" First Battalion, Eighteenth United States Infantry, under the command of Captain W. P. McCleery. This arrival had been pre-arranged by Special Order Number Four, dated November 21, 1865, which had also indicated Captain Wittman's tenure of command. Captain McCleery was the sole officer with his group of forty-six enlisted men. At the time of his take-over of the fort command post, he was responsible for five officers, seventy-five enlisted men, and sixty-five horses. A replacement for the post-surgeon position also came with him. The new post surgeon was Assistant Surgeon Joseph Kugler. [16]

Figure Three
A. WittmenCaptain48th Wisconsin Inf."D"Company Commander of Post Hospital
H. E. ZielleyAssistant Surgeon48th Wisconsin Inf.  
A. J. LumsdenCaptain48th Wisconsin Inf."F"Company commander
F. DavisFirst Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."D"On duty with company
G. RogersFirst Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."F"On duty with company
A. AdamsFirst Lieutenant2nd U. S. Cavalry"M"Company commander
J. BrownSecond Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Inf."D"Adjutant
J. MixFirst Lieutenant2nd U. S. Cavalry"M"On recruiting duty
Taken from Post Return from Fort Aubry received at District of Kansas,
Fort Leavenworth on January 10, 1865

Figure Four
Anson MillsCaptain18th U. S.. Infantry"H"Commander of post
Axel AdamsFirst Lieutenant2nd U. S. Cavalry"M"Temporarily attached to and
commanding Company "M" and
Acting Adjutant of Post
John MixFirst Lieutenant2nd U. S. Cavalry"M"On detached duty at
Carlisle, Pennsylvania
Taken from Monthly Post Return from Fort Aubry, dated January, 1866

Figure Five
Anson MillsCaptain18th U. S. Infantry"H"Commender of post
William McCleeryCaptain18th U. S. Infantry"G"company commander
Axel AdamsFirst Lieutenant2nd U. S. Cavalry"M"Company commander
Post hospital
Joseph Kugler
Assistant Surgeon  Post Hospital
E. D. HardingFirst Lieutenant18th U. S. Infantry"C"On detached duty at Fort Lyon
John Mix
Second Lieutenant2nd U. S. Cavalry"M"On recruiting duty
H. E. ZielleyAssistant Surgeon48th Wisconsin Infantry  
A. WittmanCaptain48th Wisconsin Infantry  
Alex J. LumsdenCaptain48th Wisconsin Infantry  
Frank DavisFirst Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Infantry  
George RogersFirst Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Infantry  
J. BrownSecond Lieutenant48th Wisconsin Infantry  
Taken from Monthly Return from Fort Aubry, dated February, 1866

     The troop count of the monthly return at the end of February showed 180 men in service at Fort Aubry. There were two captains, three lieutenants, fourteen sergeants, seven corporals, five musicians, and 149 privates. [17] In the period of late January and early February there were numerous changes in officer personnel from the previous, more stable months of 1865. This is shown in [Figure Five]. [18] The reason for this is not apparent.

     In the month of March, Fort Aubry was at a relatively stable strength. No new companies were added and none left. The only changes in personnel came about through desertions and normal discharges. [19]

     Captain Mills was the only man stationed at Fort Aubry to receive a leave according to the post returns. On March 25, 1866, he began a leave and he remained absent until April 15, 1866, when post records ceased. During his absence, Fort Aubry was commanded by Captain William McCleery. [20]

     In the eight months of its existence, Fort Aubry knew three different commanding officers, Captains Parker, Wittman, and Mills, and one acting commander Captain McCleery. Troop strength varied from a high of 363 on December 12, 1865, to a low of ninety-two men on September 24, 1865. The monthly tally of troops at the garrison appears in [Figure Six]. [21]

     The fort had the same problems as other frontier forts. The men were bored and lonely in camp, as is illustrated by the records showing the number of men currently in jail or deserting camp, and summarized in [Figures Seven] and [Eight]. [22] It was strenuous working at a frontier fort. It was also often dangerous, and there was considerable illness, with a high number of men continually on the sick list. [23] The monthly sick list tallies are given in [Figure Nine].

     It has been a fact in United States history that whenever the army has established a permanent fort in a frontier area civilians soon followed. Settlers were somewhat slow, however, in moving out to the Fort Aubry area. This was probably due to the harshness of the land.

     One town, however, did spring up in the Fort Aubry locality. This was Mayline (also spelled Maline), and it was located to the north of the fort, in the southeast corner of the southwest quarter of section 18, T40W R24S. Mayline never really prospered as a town. Its main function, apparently, was to serve the fort area. In later years it was a way station for the mails which were hauled over Aubry's Route to the south, especially to Clayton and Springer in New Mexico.

Figure Six
Troop Strength at Fort Aubry by Months
MonthEnlisted MenOfficersTotal
September, 186589392
(December)  (383)
January, 18661273130
Taken from Monthly Post Returns from Fort Aubry

Figure Seven
Number of Men In Arrest at Fort Aubry
Date of Post ReturnNumber
October 10, 18650
October 20, 18650
October 225, 18650
October 31, 18650
November 10, 18650
November 20, 18650
November 30, 18651
November - monthly report1
December 10, 18652
December 20, 18650
December 31, 18650
December - monthly report0
January 10, 18660
January 20, 18660
January 31, 18666
January - monthly report - not available0
February 10, 18668
February 20, 18669
February 28, 18665
February - monthly report5
March 10, 18663
March 20, 18662
March 31, 18663
March - monthly report3
April 10, 18663
April 15, 18662

Figure Eight
Number of Men Absent Without Leave or Deserting Fort Aubry
October 10, 18651First Lieutenant Thomas Doyle (AWOL)
October 20, 18651First Lieutenant Thomas Doyle (AWOL)
October 25, 18652First Lieutenant Thomas Doyle (AWOL)
October 25, 18652Lieutenant C. Amman (AWOL)
November 7, 18650(Doyle returned November 7)
November 10, 18651 
November 20, 18650 
November 30, 18650 
December 10, 18650 
December 20, 18650 
December 31, 18650 
January 10, 18660 
January 20, 18660 
January 31, 18660 
February 10, 18660 
February 20, 18660 
February 28, 18660 
March 10, 18665Private Dunka (Deserted in a group and took three horses)
March 10, 18665Private Keazlett
March 10, 18665Private Piety
March 10, 18665Private Platt
March 10, 18665Private Knise
March 20, 18662Private White (Deserted March 13 and took three horses)
March 20, 18662Private Willis
March 31, 18662Private Mullins (Deserted March 27)
March 31, 18662Private O'Donnill
April 9, 18668Eight deserted April 9, 1866
April 10, 186611Three deserted April 8, 1866
April 15, 18660Two apprehended from desertion

     Mayline was in existence as a town through the 1870's, 1880's and early 1890's. Today no buildings stand at the townsite. A few of the town's former buildings are still in existence, however. They have been transported from the townsite and are in use on nearby farms as barns and storage sheds.

Figure Nine
Number of Men on Sick List and in Hospital at Fort Aubry
DateEnlisted MenOfficers
October 10, 1865340
October 20, 1865370
October 25, 1865421
November 10, 1865251
November 20, 1865260
November 30, 1865190
December 10, 1865280
December 20, 1865260
December 31, 1865220
January 10, 1866190
January 30, 1866180
January 31, 1866150
February 10, 1866160
February 20, 1866260
February 28, 1866210
March 10, 1866230
March 20, 1866210
March 31, 1866270
April 10, 1866180
April 15, 1866190

     Mr. D. Brownlee, who now owns and lives on the farm that occupies the site of Fort Aubry has an old building in use on his farm that probably came from Mayline. While Mr. Brownlee believes his barn is a part of old Fort Aubry, it more likely comes from old Mayline, where it could easily have been the stable, as it is that type of structure. It is of wooden frame construction, and this type did not become widely used in this area of Kansas until the late 1870's, well after the building of Fort Aubry. [24]

     The town of Aubry is a different story. In 1879 a group of people who were heading for Colorado decided that the area around and just east of Fort Aubry would meet their needs and so they decided to settle there. They formed their own town approximately six miles east of the Fort site and, appropriately, named their town Aubry.

     Complications developed, however, with their choice of a name for the town. There was already a town named Aubry in eastern Kansas, and much confusion developed within the United States Postal Department. The citizens of the newer Aubry were faced with finding a remedy for the situation. Since they were reluctant to give up their chosen name of Aubry, they decided to keep it and merely change the name of the post office. They accepted the middle name of one of the town's founders, Francis Kelley, and so the name of their post office became Zamora.

     The location of the town, too, caused its residents many problems. There was controversy over which county the town was located in, and where the county seat should be located. The town, nevertheless, has survived, and it is in existence today as Kendall, Kansas, in Hamilton County. It is approximately eleven miles east of Syracuse.

  1. Letter from Major General W. L. Elliott to the Commander of Fort Lyon, district of Kansas, September 15, 1865. (Letter appears in microfilm record of Aubry Post Return available from the National Archives of the United States, Washington, D. C.)
  2. Post Return from Fort Aubry, October 10, 1865.
  3. Post Return from Fort Aubry, October 25, 1865.
  4. Post Return from Fort Aubry, October 10, 1865.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Post Return from Fort Aubry, October 20, 1865
  7. Monthly Post Return from Fort Aubry, October, 1865
  8. Ibid.
  9. Monthly Post Return from Fort Aubry, November, 1865.
  10. Post Return from Fort Aubry, December 10, 1865.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Post Return from Fort Aubry, January 20, 1866.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Monthly Post Return from Fort Aubry, January, 1866.
  16. Post Return from Fort Aubry, February 20, 1865.
  17. Monthly Post Return from Fort Aubry, February, 1866.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Monthly Post Return from Fort Aubry, March, 1866
  20. Post Returns from Fort Aubry, March 31 and April 10, 1866.
  21. Post Returns from Fort Aubry, September, 1865, through April, 1866.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid.
  24. All wood had to be shipped into the area as it was very scarce. Even along the banks of the largest rivers of the area, the Arkansas and Cimarron, wood was not abundant. Traders and settlers found that in order to build their fires they had to resort to burning buffalo chips and they had too live in sod houses and dug-outs due to the lack of timber. Army practice was to use native stone, if available, for other fort buildings. I find it inconceivable to think that the army would use other materials for building at such a small post as Fort Aubry, when they did not see fit to use them at the large forts which were more permanent. It would be believable to think the barn came from Mayline, or, perhaps, was built at a later date.
    Used With Permisssion of the Author:
    E. P. Burr

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