The Official Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter Vol 27- No 4 - 2017
Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter
Cheyenne & Lakota Village Site
The photo above of a camp at Roman Nose State Park in Oklahoma is provided courtesy of Mark Doiron

Alice Clapsaddle, left, presenting the David K. Clapsaddle Memorial Educator Award to Sandra Lucas, April 29, 2017.
     One year and one day after the death of David Clapsaddle, the Fort Larned Old Guard was honored to have Alice Clapsaddle present the first David K. Clapsaddle Memorial Educator Award to honor his years of service to educating young people about Fort Larned and the Santa Fe Trail. David developed many programs, including stories and special "trunk programs" including artifacts for children to handle, which he presented in schools in Kansas and adjoining states, speaking to more than 4,000 children over the years. The Old Guard established this award, a plaque and $50 from funds donated in David's memory, to be presented annually to a person who has made significant contributions to educating youth about the Fort.

     Sandra Lucas of Larned was presented the first Clapsaddle Award for some two decades of teaching about Fort Larned and organizing many events for the annual Kansas Kids' Fitness Day held at the Fort each spring. Congratulations Sandy.

     The Old Guard Awards Committee welcomes nominations to be considered for future awards.

     Thomas Allsup, shown here in later life, was a private in Co. A, 10th Cavalry, stationed at Fort Larned, 1867-1869. He served at many other frontier posts before retiring from the Army as a sergeant in 1897, a career of 30 years. His grandson, Thomas Allsup III, participated in ceremonies at Fort Larned National Historic Site in 1980, commemorating the service of African-American soldiers in the frontier West.

Buffalo Soldiers 150th Anniversary Commemorations At Fort Larned
by Ranger Celeste Dixon

     This year Fort Larned National Historic Site joins other historic sites and parks to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Buffalo Soldiers in the U.S. Army. These famed regiments of African-American soldiers demonstrated qualities of valor and courage throughout their military history. In return, they sought equality, respect, self-sufficiency, education, and adventure. The public is invited to join in celebrating this proud 150-year history by attending programs and events throughout the year dedicated to honoring the Buffalo Soldiers' significant legacy.

     In 1866 Congress restructured the Army after downsizing the huge forces raised to fight the Civil War. Recognizing the significant contribution African American men made to the war effort, they authorized the creation of six new regiments in the regular Army to be comprised solely of African American enlisted men serving under white officers. Because many black men lacked social and economic opportunities after the war, some jumped at the chance for a career in the U.S. Army. The new units later were reduced to four and included the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry. During the 19th century, these regiments served in the Indian Wars on the Great Plains and across the West. Some of these men even went on to become the first caretakers of our national parks.

     The name "Buffalo Soldier" conveys a proud history. Many historians believe that Indian tribes chose the nickname because the soldiers' hair reminded them of buffalo hair. The staff at Fort Larned National Historic Site commemorates the Buffalo Soldiers' 150th anniversary so we all can embrace a symbol of human courage and appreciate a shared heritage.

     This year also marks the 150th anniversary of the arrival of the newly-formed Company A of the 10th U. S. Cavalry at Fort Larned, so it's appropriate that our first commemorative event was a Buffalo Soldier encampment with re-enactor Jay Clark, joined by his sister, Esther Clark, who portrays a company laundress. The event included two formal talks and informal interpretation throughout the day.

     Co. A arrived at Fort Larned comprised of 98 enlisted men. Only one man could read and write, but their commander, Captain Nicholas Nolan, was impressed with their devotion to duty, hard work, and eagerness to prove themselves in the field. Their mission at the Fort was protecting the people and commerce traveling the Santa Fe Trail.

     The men cam mostly from Missouri, Kansas, and a few northeastern cities. While stationed at Fort Larned, the men of Co. A took part in the normal routine of a frontier post, including work details and guard duty, as well as grooming their horses and practicing cavalry drills. The troopers also took their turn at patrolling the area around the Fort and fought against Indians twice in 1868. In the first encounter, they assisted Fort Dodge by pursuing "a large party of Indians from that post fifteen miles to Mulberry Creek, killing three." In December of that same year, Indians attacked a supply train bound for Fort Dodge at Little Coon Creek and drove off the cattle. Twenty troopers from Co. A rode 14 miles to Little Coon Creek, recaptured the cattle, and escorted the train to safety. Thirteen men suffered frostbite in this action due to severe winter weather at the time.

     Laundresses were an important part of all Army units in the 1800s. They were considered officially part of the Army, receiving quarters, firewood, and daily food rations from the post commissary. The 1863 Revised Army Regulations allowed four laundresses per company, later revised to one laundress for each 19 1/2 men. Their pay was set by a post council of administration, comprised of officers at the post, and were usually set at so much per each piece of clothing. Laundresses earned from $20 to $40 a month, and their pay came from payroll deductions from each soldier for whom they were responsible. In keeping with the segregated nature of the units at the time, African-American women were recruited for the job of company laundresses for all the Buffalo Soldier units.

     On May 13 historian John Langellier presented a program, "Remington Called Them Buffalo Soldiers," and autographed copies of his new book, Fighting for Uncle Sam: Buffalo Soldiers in the Frontier Army, which includes more than 130 photos of African Americans in the U.S. Army. The celebration of Buffalo Soldiers continues at the Fort.

Fort Larned Old Guard Chair's Column
by Janet Armstead

     Through the delighted, wondering eyes of a child--that's how I first beheld Fort Larned. It is my pleasure to be the new chairperson of Fort Larned Old Guard. Let me introduce myself to you. Pleased to meet you-I'm Janet Armstead.

     Clay Center, Kansas, is my hometown. Then, like three generations of my family, I attended Kansas State University, earning a BS degree and later a MS degree in music education. Long story short, I just retired after 39 1/2 years of teaching music in Kansas public schools and enjoying almost all of it! Add in my husband, Dean, two children, and five grandchildren, and you have a snapshot of Janet.

     Over the years I have accompanied many young people on trips over the Santa Fe Trail and to visit Fort Larned National Historic Site.

     Mess & Muster 2017, honoring the 150th year since the Hancock Expedition, was a soggy one and thus dubbed "Hancock's Revenge" by Leo Oliva. Because of the rain, the activities at the village site had to be canceled. Activities took place at the Fort and the Haas Building in Larned.

     Enlightening talks were given by Leo Oliva and Tim Zwink. Former Fort Larned Old Guard chairman Ken Weidner and his crew set up their tipis at the Fort and, in spite of the rain, gave a stunning fashion show of the various tribal clothing and accessories.

     The evening program began with music of 1867 by Prairie Larkspur (my good friend Christine Day and me). We were honored to present the old songs to you.

     The Fort Larned Old Guard board was introduced. Two members reached term limits. Retiring Chairman Tom Seltmann was commissioned a Colonel. Leo Oliva, retiring treasurer, said he'd received several "Colonelcy's." We should have named him a general! Board members Mark Berry, Martha Scranton, and I were elected to another term. New members joining the board are Greg VanCoevern from Salina and Fort Larned Old Guard board veteran Rex Abrahams of Canton. Those continuing on the board are Vicki Gillett, Martha Scranton, Bonita Oliva, Linda Peters, and Chris Day. The officers for the coming year are Janet Armstead, Chair; Vicki Gillett, Vice-Chair; Bonita Oliva, Secretary, and Martha Scranton, Treasurer. Appointed positions are Leo Oliva, Village Site Manager; Linda Peters, Membership; and Chris Day, Grants.

     Cheyenne Chief Gordon Yellowman was the evening speaker, explaining how difficulties of language and communication affected the Hancock Expedition and Indian-white relations to the present. We hope to hear more from him on this topic.

     Special thanks are extended to all the Fort Larned Old Guard board and Fort Larned National Historic Site Chief Ranger George Elmore and staff for getting things set up for Mess & Muster. We all agree that Fort Larned is a very special place. I look forward to working with and for you in the continued support of this fine historical site.

Superintendent's Corner
by Betty Boyko

     A relatively mild winter transitioned into a cold and wet spring here at Fort Larned. To quote Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, "Spring is a time of plans and projects," and the plans and projects at Fort Larned are coming along nicely.

     We are on schedule with our new museum exhibits and should have the design process completed by the end of the calendar year. We're very excited about how engaging these exhibits will be from both the technological and cultural perspectives. Besides focusing on the US Army soldiers and their job here at the Fort, these exhibits will also present the viewpoints of the Plains Indians, Latinos on the Santa Fe Trail, and the Buffalo Soldiers. We are also very pleased to have Cheyenne Assistant Executive Director of Education Gordon Yellowman giving us guidance on how to tell the American Indian story. Also, a special thank you goes to Dr. Leo Oliva and Dr. Tim Zwink for reviewing the first draft of exhibit text.

     Spring is also a time of uncertain weather and once again the weather upset plans to spend this year's Mess & Muster at the Indian Village site. Even though I was unable to attend, I greatly appreciate the work and support of the Fort Larned Old Guard for this special historic site on the Santa Fe Trail.

     We received some good news over the winter. This year, Fort Larned and Fort Scott National Historic Site had the region's highest scores in the Best Places. Skills/Mission, and Pay Categories in an Employee Viewpoint Survey. This was the second highest rating in the Midwest Region. The Employee Viewpoint Survey is the only consistent metric and strategic tool that National Park Service has to gauge the attitudes of our workforce in a confidential manner. I have no doubt that the contributions by our volunteers and the Fort Larned Old Guard greatly contributed to this rating. Thank you for your consistent and continued support of our park and employees! Happy Spring!

Fort Larned Roll Call: Resilience
by Roy Hargadine, Park Ranger

     When I was in elementary school my life was made miserable by a bully. My parents said I needed more resilience. The situation was taken care of when the good Lord doubled my size and strength. When I was 14, I played football and injured my knee. They put me in the hospital. I was not feeling good and to make matters worse my Dad and the Doctor walked in and announced that I had Type 1 Diabetes. I had no clue what having diabetes meant. I thought you could take shots that would fix me. Little did I know that diabetes would affect every organ in my body for the rest of my life and if not cared for correctly it would kill me. Everyone said I took the news very well. What they didn't know was that I didn't know the effect it would have on me for the rest of my life. I didn't have a choice in the matter.

     A few years later I went to an eye doctor and he said you need some laser treatment on your eyes. One day after a couple of treatments I woke up from a nap and my left eye was completely blind. I picked up my rifle and went prairie dog hunting thinking my eye would start working again. Two days later they operated on it but the operation failed. My days of playing sports that required me to catch a ball were over. My mom said, "Well, you have such good resilience." There was that word again. I looked it up and it means the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness. I continued to hunt with the use of my right eye and good optics.

     Years later, hunting seemed to be getting harder and a checkup revealed the need for five-by-passes. I said okay but I need to be in the Arctic in five months to hunt caribou. I called on Mister resilience for help and was canoeing on a river near the Hudson Bay in September.

     During this time, a lifelong dream came true. I had always wanted to be a Park Ranger. After watching them in action on TV and in parks, it was something I wanted to do. Timing was perfect, too. I could still teach, go on Safaris and hunt, and be a seasonal ranger. I made an application to Fort Larned National Historic Site and was accepted. My first day of work was Memorial Day. They gave me a wool coat, wool pants, clunky shoes, and a rifle, and tossed me out onto the parade grounds to learn how to march in the sun. I asked myself, "What just happened and what am I doing here?" I called on my best friend, resilience. I loved the job and learned many things. I loved doing the demonstrations and giving interpretive programs. Had I known all the things the National Park Service had to offer I am sure I would have been looking into it while I was in college.

     Resilience again paid off and I have been with the National Park Service for 20 years. Doing research, giving programs, and making friends are a few of the things Fort Larned National Historic Site has given me. During this time, I could still hunt around the world. My wife and I went to Canada hunting bear. We went to Africa three different times. During the last and most dangerous hunt for a Cape Buffalo, I realized walking was becoming more difficult for me.

     It was during a dove hunt to Argentina where I had to shoot sitting down when I realized I needed to see a neurologist when I returned home. I knew the problem was neuropathy. When you have diabetes for over 50 years you cannot avoid it. So far, there is nothing much that can be done about it. The only thing I did was call on resilience again.

     About a year later I was carrying a bag of salt downstairs and felt a pain in my left foot. Having been an EMT, I was sure it was a stress fracture. The doctor had it x-rayed to confirm it. Things started going downhill from there. The x-ray revealed the left side of the foot was not just broken but shattered. Then I heard the craziest news. In the ball of my foot was about a 3" sewing needle. Because it had probably been there for a long time we opted to not remove it. Due to the shattered foot they put on a stabilizing boot so we could still check circulation. Within two days a sore was discovered on my left heel. I can read facial expressions pretty well and knew this was bad news. Walking was not an option any more. I went to the wound center in Hays and spent nearly 15 days. They tried many things, but to no avail. I came home to my hometown hospital for six days. I could see no improvement. I went to see the surgeon and simply said, "Doctor I have places to go, people to see, and things to do. My foot is not going to get any better. Let's cut it off and get going again." He left the room for about 15 minutes and when he came back he asked if I would be okay without a foot. I told him yes. He said he would do it in two days. To me it was the first progressive decision made in weeks.

     The foot came off September 9, 2016. Resilience kicked into high gear and I was now faced with the biggest challenge of my life. It wasn't a question if I was going to hunt, but how? I knew I could drive, but how do I get into my truck? My biggest worry however was the situation at the Fort. I really like the Fort, the many activities, and the people that I work with. I knew I would not be able to carry the load I had in the past. The things I loved the most included interpreting, giving tours, doing research, and giving programs. It took six months but I finally got fitted with a prosthesis. I am still learning to walk with it. With some modifications, I could do some things at the Fort. Would it be enough to meet the standards of a National Park Service Park Ranger? Well, I am back to work running the front desk mostly with the help of the wonderful staff and my dear old friend resilience. I can continue to be a part of making Fort Larned National Historic Site one of the best-preserved frontier forts in the western United States. Oh, and by the way, a New Zealand Red Stag hunt is in the schedule somewhere.

William Chalfant Memorial Award Presented To Volunteer Ken Weidner
     Ken Weidner, former chair of the Old Guard, has been a volunteer at Fort Larned National Historic Site for many years. His tipi and furnishings have been set up at the Fort and at the Cheyenne and Lakota Village Site to help visitors understand and appreciate Plains Indian material culture. He has presented special programs on Cheyenne material culture at Fort Larned and many other historic sites. He makes most of the items on display, and he makes items for museum exhibits. He is especially knowledgeable about clothing, horse equipment, weapons, and tools.

     For his many years of service, Weidner was presented the 2017 William Y. Chalfant Memorial Award, established by the Old Guard several years ago to honor Chalfant's many years of service to Fort Larned National Historic Site and the Old Guard. It is awarded annually to recognize an outstanding volunteer at the Fort. In addition to a plaque of recognition, a copy of Chalfant's final book, Hancock's War, is part of this award. Congratulations Ken!

Volunteer Roll Call: Christina Hagerman
by Ellen Jones, Park Ranger

     Retired teacher Christina "Chris" Hagerman describes Fort Larned as "the best-preserved fort offering the opportunity for all visitors to walk in the footsteps of our forefathers." Journeying with the next generation in this immersive experience is just what Chris has been doing this spring. Chris is one of a few volunteers involved with the Every Kid in the Park Program. The education staff at the Fort couldn't ask for a more experienced teacher to assist with this new education progress.

     On a typical field-trip day Chris will arrive at the Fort about an hour before the school buses roll in. She leads the "Santa Fe Trail Map Game" and needs ample time to set up the station in the Visitor Center Auditorium. She teaches several different groups of 4th graders how to play the map skills game. The students read messages on game cards to identify: rivers, forts, towns, people, and objects. This takes patience on Chris's part, but like any experienced educator she diligently guides students toward understanding life during the Santa Fe Trail era. She states, "I observe facial expressions and their eager participation as I guide them. This activity is effective in leading them to an understanding of life on the prairie, as they connect with Kansas history during the 19th century."

     Chris Hagerman is originally from North-Central Kansas, in the Mankato and Phillipsburg areas. She earned a Bachelor's degree in Education from Kansas Wesleyan University in Salina, and a Master's degree in Special Education from Fort Hays State University. Her husband, Charles, a native of the Larned area, is a farmer. Their son, Lance, was raised here and returned to live here with his wife, Melissa, and children, Jillian and Landis. After more than 40 years as a Pawnee County resident, Chris considers Larned her home. She retired from teaching special education at Larned Middle School in 2014 after working as a teacher and substitute teacher in the Fort Larned USD 495 for over 32 years.

     Chris is a dynamic educator, and she has many other interests and there is little free time. She enjoys spending time with family, working outside, reading, sewing, and likes to exercise. These days that includes a walk around the Fort Larned Parade Ground.

Post Surgeons: Alfred A. Woodhull
by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger
(This is sixth of the series on the post surgeons at Fort Larned.)

     On June 17, 1869, Assistant Surgeon Alfred A. Woodhull arrived to take over for outgoing post surgeon, Captain William Forwood. Forwood had been a colorful character at the Fort, keeping wild animals as pets and collecting all types of plains flora and fauna specimens to study. While Surgeon Woodhull may not have been quite as interesting a member of the post officer staff, he would, like Forwood, have a relatively illustrious career.

     Alfred Woodhull was born in Princeton, New Jersey, April 13, 1837. He came from a historic background; one of his ancestors, John Witherspoon, had signed the Declaration of Independence. Woodhull attended Lawrenceville School, graduating in 1852, before going on to receive a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1856 from the College of New Jersey. In 1859 he received a Master's degree from the same college and then a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Before the start of the Civil War he practiced as a civilian doctor in Leavenworth and Eudora, Kansas.

     With the start of the Civil War Dr. Woodhull helped recruit a troop of militia and was commissioned a lieutenant. On September 19, 1861, he was appointed to the Army Medical Corps in the regular army, in which he served throughout the war. From 1864 to 1865 he was a medical inspector for the Army of the James, and in March 1865 he was breveted a lieutenant-colonel.

     Army life must have agreed with Woodhull because he continued his Army career after the war ended, being assigned to the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. In 1866 he contributed the "Surgical Section" of the Catalogue of the United States Army Medical Museum. On December 15, 1868, he married Margaret Ellicott from Baltimore, Maryland.

     In the spring of 1868 the Surgeon General's Office printed a report about the medical effect of uniforms on the soldiers, written by Captain Woodhull in response to a poll put to medical directors across the country in the summer of 1867 for their opinions on the "hygienic fitness" (for the localities where they are now on duty)" of the current army uniform. Captain Woodhull recommended uniforms that varied in design and fabric weights depending on the season or climate. In his opinion, a lighter and better ventilated hat was needed for warm weather, and a different, more protective version for cold weather. Woodhull's report was very critical of the current design of the Army's uniform because it was too tight, made it difficult for soldiers to breath, and the wool fabric prevented the evaporation of perspiration.

     Captain Dangerfield Parker was Fort Larned commander when Captain Woodhull arrived to take up his duties as Post Surgeon. It's possible that Captain Woodhull's views on the deficiencies of the current wool uniforms may have inspired Captain Parker to send a request to his superiors, which was ultimately denied, to alter the uniforms during the scorching plains summers. He proposed straw hats, flannel blue blouses with "shoulder straps pertaining to the rank of the wearer," and white trousers.

     Among other duties required of him during his little over a year spent at Fort Larned, he was called on to testify to what he knew about Lt. George Cook's "irregularities" in accounting for Quartermaster supplies. One of the activities supposedly carried out by Lt. Cook was exchanging forage for blankets. Captain Woodhull reported that he had heard about this practice but didn't know who was involved, going on to say that "I have the impression and believe that the exchange was made with his (Cook's) knowledge." He had also heard that around the time that Lt. Charles Louis Umbstaetter was relieving Cook, "considerable property was hauled away from the Quartermaster's department. . . . Lieutenant Umbstaetter told me that he took a careful inventory of the property when he relieved Lieutenant Cook but that afterwards he found many deficiencies and he accounted for the principal ones only by supposing that his memorandum book of the Inventory taken which was left in the quartermasters office in charge of one Doctor Clutter clerk for Lieutenant Cook had changed the figures therein."

     The new stone buildings were under construction when Captain Woodhull arrived at the post. In the fall of 1869 he made recommendations for the enlisted barracks to allow for more air ventilation. The design called for 10-foot ceilings with space left between the ceilings and the roof to allow for air circulation, which would come from openings under the eaves on the south side of the building. Woodhull recommended that more openings be cut into the ceilings of the squad rooms and ventilating shafts be inserted between them and the roof to admit more air per man. This suggestion also included baffle boards to keep direct currents of air off the sleeping men. The post commander approved these suggestions, but the quartermaster declined to make the changes.

     As had Dr. Forwood before him, Dr. Woodhull continued the call for a new post hospital, which would be repeated by subsequent post surgeons until one side of the east enlisted barracks was finally converted into a new hospital. In December 1869 Captain James Snyder took advantage of the winter lull in trail traffic to have some soldiers tear down the old frame carpentry shop and several adobe shacks, which improved the appearance of the Fort. Dr. Woodhull made a note in the medical records that no one had bothered to lift a finger to repair the adobe hospital.

     In January of 1870 Woodhull went with a civilian, Charles Rath, on an expedition several miles up the Pawnee River to the site of an Arapaho camp from 1866-1867 where a mastodon fossil was reported to be. The two men didn't attempt to excavate the bones. In addition to the cold weather prevailing at the time, the burial site was covered with mud and water.

     Besides paleontological surveys of the surrounding area, Captain Woodhull also attended to the medical needs of the men. A soldier with a broken clavicle came to the surgery in January. In February the fort received 191 new recruits, which the doctor examined. He proclaimed all of them in good health except one man who had amblyaphia, a condition in which vision is reduced because the eye and the brain don't work together. Dr. Woodhull issued a certificate of disability and the man was released from service. The surgeon also had to deal with several cases of frostbite from soldiers who were sent out to search for cattle stolen from the beef contractor.

     In March General N. S. Davis, district inspector, visited Larned to look over the new stone buildings. Dr. Woodhull took the opportunity to complain for 30 minutes about the deplorable condition of the post's adobe hospital. General Davis promised to report on the hospital's condition when he returned to district headquarters. In April Captain Woodhull went on a 10-day leave to St. Louis, stopped in at Department Headquarters, and learned that no action would be taken to replace Fort Larned's hospital until department commander General John Schofield had a chance to personally inspect the adobe buildings.

     In April many of the soldiers began planting gardens at various locations around the Fort. The men also set up various systems to water the gardens and protect them from the dry summer winds. Some of the vegetable rows in the company gardens were reserved for the hospital. Dr. Woodhull would remark later in the year that "gardens may be cultivated at Fort Larned with results sufficient to warrant the expenditure of labor."

     Fifty new recruits arrived at Fort Larned in August after a march from Fort Hays. A severe rainstorm poured down on them during the last part of their march so that several days after they arrived many of them developed a fever. So many of them became sick that Dr. Woodhull did not have enough room in the inadequate adobe hospital and he had to set up a tent next to the hospital. By September he had so many patients that he placed the more severe cases in the Commissary and Quartermaster storehouses. On September 4, Private David Wright, assigned to Co. C, died of remittent fever, the first death at the post since June 1869.

     On October 10, 1870, Woodhull was relieved by Acting Assistant Surgeon J. M. Laing. Highlights of his Army career after leaving Fort Larned include instruction in military hygiene at the Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, from 1886 to 1890, and command of the Army and Navy Hospital at Hot Springs, Arkansas, from 1892 to 1895. He traveled to England in 1891 to study the British Army's medical care, publishing a report about it in 1894. Other notable contributions he made to military medical literature include papers in 1875 and 1876 advocating the use of sub-emetic doses of ipecacuanha to treat dysentery, Provisional Manual for the Exercise of Company Bearers and Hospital Corps and Notes on Military Hygiene for Officers of the Line in 1889. He was awarded the gold medal of the Military Service Institution for his paper on the "The Enlisted Soldier," published in the March 1887 issue of its journal.

     Woodhull was promoted to Major Surgeon on October 1, 1876; Lt. Col. Deputy Surgeon General on May 16, 1894; Col. Asst. Surgeon General on October 8, 1900. In 1895 he was appointed medical inspector of the Dept. of Colorado and in 1899 he became chief surgeon of the Department of the Pacific at Manila. He retired in 1901 and was promoted to brigadier-general on the retired list in 1904.

     Dr. Woodhull returned to his hometown of Princeton after he retired and spent the years from 1902 to 1907 lecturing on personal hygiene and general sanitation. During this time he also wrote Personal Hygiene: Designed for Undergraduates in 1906. In 1907 he received the Seaman prize for an article about hygiene and sanitation instruction in military and naval service schools that was published in the Military Service Institution's Journal, March-April 1908. In 1913 he wrote a tactical study of the Battle of Princeton. He died in Princeton on October 18, 1921.

Living In The North Officers' Quarters
Part 4: Today vs. 1868
by Sam Young, Fort Larned National Historic Site Volunteer

     When I finished Part 3, I was in my warm kitchen on a cold day drinking a cup of hot coffee, which I had prepared, and going over the schedule of my activities for the day as if it were 1868. Since I am not in my quarters much of the duty day, I decided to instead share with you what it was like in 1868 for the individuals who maintained the quarters, cooked for the officers and their families who lived in these quarters, and served the officers. How would I know that life since I normally portrayed, as a Fort Larned National Historic Site (National Historic Site) volunteer, either a cavalry saddler or a cavalry trumpeter? As stated in previous parts of this series, I have read many of the books of life on Army posts written by officers' wives or other family members. I also performed many of the duties of the housekeeper, cook, and striker during the years I lived in those quarters since there was no one else to do those duties for me and I wanted my quarters to appear lived in and maintained in good order.

     Fort Larned National Historic Site, for historical interpretation, shows the quarters I occupied as those of a bachelor officer who was a company commander in the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment. Because he did not have the expenses of a family, let's presume he decided not to have a housekeeper and cook. Thus, he arranged with the Post Sutler to eat his meals in the trading post mess hall located about 200 feet from his quarters. He probably made arrangements with one of the post laundresses to do his laundry and periodically clean his quarters. He would have hired one of his soldiers to serve as his striker, who he paid to perform such tasks as feeding and caring for his horses, cleaning and maintaining his tack and weapons, cleaning and shining his boots and shoes, keeping his wood boxes filled and his stoves cleaned, and performing other chores as directed, such as keeping his fresh-water crock filled, cleaning lamp globes, ensuring kerosene lamp wicks were trimmed and the kerosene reservoirs on the lamps were filled, and snow, ice, and mud were removed from the porch and steps. Since he was a bachelor, his transient house guests were probably always single officers who also ate in the trading post mess hall and received laundry support from his laundress, if required. Additionally, any entertaining in his quarters was probably with fellow officers for cards, checkers, or chess, so elaborate meals were unnecessary.

     For the quarters I occupied in the 21st century, I was the housekeeper, cook, and striker. Since it was usually about two months between each stay in those quarters, I would come in a day early to sweep and dust, wash the dishes, pots and pans I knew I would use, and ensure I had adequate firewood and water. Each spring I would come and do a thorough cleaning, to include taking down and shaking the dust from the curtains and washing the windows. I even washed bedding and dish towels as necessary. The Kansas winds were always covering everything with dust and crop residue. Plus there were always the dead flies and spiders who had found their final resting place in my quarters. I polished my own boots and maintained my equipment and uniforms. In cold weather I definitely kept my wood boxes full of dry wood. Fortunately I did not have horses to maintain, although I have years of experience doing that, including winter temperatures well below zero and extremely hot and humid summers.

     Officers with families came in two categories: young, junior officers allotted one, maybe two, small rooms or a tent regardless of the size of their families; and older officers who had larger families, larger quarters, socialized more by hosting dinners for their fellow officers and spouses or whose wives were involved in many activities, and frequently shared their quarters and food with transient officers and their families. The junior officers, in most cases, probably did not have a housekeeper and/or cook. The older officers probably did as it took a significant amount of the daily home chores off of their wives.

     Housekeepers and cooks were mostly female and came from many sources, including laundresses, soldiers' wives and daughters, local ranches, from their families back east, and nearby towns. They could be married couples, foreign immigrants, former slaves, and even from nearby Indian tribes. In her book Vanished Arizona, Recollections of the Army Life of a New England Woman, Martha Summerhayes, wife of Lieut. Col. John W. Summerhayes, describes her nearly-naked Indian cook, who wore only a breechcloth and moccasins, and his impact on her house guests, especially the ladies!

     In addition to the normal challenges and duties faced by the housekeepers and cooks--dirt and cleaning, heating and cooking with firewood, house guests, formal and informal dinner parties, sickness, and laundry--they had to contend with dust and flies from the nearby stables, bats grasshopper swarms, ranking-out, lack of eggs and other staples necessary for cooking and baking, uninvited Indian want-to-be house guests, threat of Indian attacks, stuffing newspapers and rags into cracks in walls, doors, and windows to keep out dirt and weather such as rain and cold, floods and blizzards, prairie fires, and the gossip and cliques that infested military (and civilian) communities.

     Several years ago (I do not recall the exact year, but possibly 2012 or 2013) Fort Larned National Historic Site was hit by strong, damaging winds. Glass in many of the windows was broken allowing dust, dirt, and other debris into virtually every building. Wooden window shutters were damaged and wooden roofing shingles were blown off. And the flag on the flagpole was shredded. Fortunately rain did not follow. This brought to mind the story in one of the books written by an Army officer's wife that I read--I do not recall which one--that a similar wind storm hit the western fort in which she lived that was followed shortly after by heavy, wind-blown rain that turned the dust and dirt which covered everything, indoors and out, into thick mud. Just imagine having to clean up that mess, and not having 21st-century tools and cleaning supplies!

     In the case of Fort Larned, the trading post was within a 5-minute walk, which made it convenient for the housekeeper and cook to obtain most of the things they required to perform their duties. If the items were not available, they could place an order, to receive them at a later date. It is interesting, from reading the books written by Army spouses and family members, how quickly trading post ordered items could be received. Arrival could be expected in a few weeks, especially as railroads moved west.

     This ends the Living in the North Officers' Quarters series. It was a fun, exciting, educational, challenging, and enjoyable experience. I may write more on this topic at a later date . . . who knows?

The Enlisted Men of Company C, Third Infantry
Part VII - Michael Brazell
by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger

     (Fort Larned's main interpretive year is 1868, which is the year the stone buildings were completed. Company C, 3rd U.S. Infantry, was stationed at Fort Larned during that year and part of the research for the restoration of the barracks and hospital building was finding out information for most of these enlisted men. That information was compiled in the Historic Furnishing Study: Enlisted Men's Barracks and Post Hospital, HS-2. Here is the seventh installment in a series on the enlisted men whose information is included in that report. There are no photos available for these enlisted soldiers.)

     Private Michael Brazell is not actually the next person on the list of men in Company C; Patrick Bowles is. However Private Bowles enlisted on December 28, 1868, at Fort Larned and, according to the Company C muster rolls, served as the company cook from the time he enlisted until the end of the year, so he was only at Fort Larned for three days in 1868.

     Fortunately, there is more information for Private Brazell. He enlisted on November 3, 1865, in Buffalo, New York. There is no record of when he arrived at Fort Larned, however, by January 1868 he is listed as spending the entire month on company duty. He started February on company duty but on the 11th he was assigned extra duty in the Post Quartermaster Department as a plasterer. It's possible Brazell was chosen for this duty because he already had skill with this particular job. Although the Army did hire a crew of civilians to do the majority of construction on the new stone buildings going up at the Fort, they often used soldiers with specific skills to help with the work.

     Private Brazell spent all of March and April as a plasterer. In May he was still on extra duty with the Quartermaster Department but he was now employed as a mechanic. Mechanics in the 1800s were not the same as mechanics today. In the 19th century a mechanic was a manual laborer, or somebody who operated machinery, or used machinery in the production of goods. There is no information about what type of "mechanic" work Brazell did for the Quartermaster Department, but it was most likely of the manual labor variety.

     Brazell worked as a mechanic in the Quartermaster Department from May until October. He returned to company duty on November 3, which was also the date he was honorably discharged from the Army. There is no information available on his life after the Army.

     Private Brazell seemed to be a fairly typical soldier. He enlisted at the close of the Civil War and, although we don't know about his service prior to his arrival at Fort Larned, while at the fort he apparently did his work and stayed out of trouble. When his enlistment ended he chose not to re-enlist and left the Army.

Maintenance Matters
by William Chapman, Facility Manager

     The Historic Preservation Training Center will return to Kansas and Fort Larned to assist us with the preservation of the Barracks/Hospital and the Visitor Center buildings this summer. Historic Preservation Training Center provides treatment for Federal and State historic properties. Some may recall that, in 2005 and 2006, this group performed the stabilization of the Commissary building. The forthcoming project does not have us replacing the foundation as in 2005 but rather repairs to windows, doors, porch columns, and associated building components. Work is scheduled to begin on site in late June or early July. The crew will be staying in lodges in the Larned community which will help he local economy.

     We recently completed several projects by park staff and contracted services. Park staff has repaired a troubling connectivity issue on the park alarm system. This issue caused many false alarms which had to be responded to. Since these repairs have been completed there are no more false alarms.

     We also completed design work for a new alarm system which will have wireless components. This design will lessen the impact on the historic fabric of the park's structure. Installation of this new system is scheduled for late September.

     Park staff has raised the rear porches of the North and South Officers' Quarters. This was the first step in making the South Officers' Quarters accessible. The rear porches on the North Officers' Quarters were corrected to comply with the Architecture Barriers Act. We removed a section of the decking and installed shimming pieces on top of the joist to have the finish height of the porch deck in order to meet regulations. We still have to modify the doors to lower the wood threshold to less than 1/2 of an inch.

     On Earth Day, April 22, a group of Boy Scouts from the Wichita area worked with park staff to replace the roof of the well house of the South Officers' Quarters. This was a good project! It provided the opportunity to teach the scouts about preservation as well as tool use, shingling techniques, and the role they and the National Park Service play in preservation efforts.

     The Old Commissary is sporting new doors. This was a project that had Fort staff partnering with the Larned Juvenile Correctional Facility before it was closed on March 3, 2017.

     We replaced the demarcation railing of officers' row and the insulation in the attic of the visitor center this year via contracting services. Both contractors did a very good job.

     New faces. Maintenance has hired James (Jim) Roessler as a seasonal maintenance worker to help park staff on preservation projects on the New Commissary/School as well as Barracks/Hospital and the Visitor Center. Jim is from Tennessee and has worked as a seasonal in the Park Service for a few years, including a stint at Nicodemus National Historic Site in Northwest Kansas.

Wind, Rain, And Hail Damage At Fort Larned
by Ellen Jones & Clayton Hanson, Park Rangers

     Fort Larned weathers the extremes of the Great Plains every year. This spring has been no different in its many transitions between cool and hot or wet and dry. In early March, distant prairie fires filled the sky with smoky haze after two bone-dry months. A few weeks later, the wheel turned again and much more than showers returned to the Fort.

     The area experienced some strange weather conditions the past month. Visitors and park staff have been in awe of beautiful skies boasting vibrant colors and ominous clouds between storms. Pawnee Creek has been filled to the brim due to heavy rain. The Fort's Historic Garden could not be happier!

     On the evening of Saturday, April 15, Easter weekend, a severe thunderstorm rattled Pawnee County and the post. Strong winds and hail accompanied a torrential downpour. At the fort, pellet-sized lumps of ice drifted against the north sides of buildings. Hailstones the size of golf balls blew into and blew out more than a dozen windows on the north side of the barracks buildings. The day after, maintenance employees were hard at work patching the broken panes of glass with tape and plastic. Even with today's technology, it is not hard to imagine the importance of inspecting and patching the buildings. Captain Almon Rockwell, quartermaster, designed the Fort's buildings well, but it took and takes effort to keep the post in good order.

     These temporary patches have continued to hold out the weather as the panes are replaced. Two weeks later, they proved their worth as nearly six inches of rainfall and a dusting of snow covered the area during the weekend of the Fort Larned Old Guard Mess and Muster. In May some of them protected the interiors of the historic buildings against more hail and the gusty winds of tornado-like weather roaring toward the northeast.

     The evening of Tuesday, May 16, a tornado hit north of Great Bend causing damage to a dozen homes. Fortunately, no one was hurt. For many of us here at the Fort this weather event was too close for comfort!

Memorial Day Weekend, May 27-29
by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger

     Fort Larned staff and volunteers will bring the post back to life over Memorial weekend, with special events scheduled all three days, plus a 19th-century religious service on Sunday.

     The schedule of demonstrations and special programs for all three days:
          10:00 - Forge and Anvil: Watch and listen as the blacksmith uses fire and hammer to transform iron. (In the Blacksmith Shop)
          11:00 - From Garden to Table: Experience the fragrance and flavors of the post garden. (Behind the North Officers' Quarters)
          1:00 pm - Artillery and Rifle Firing Demonstrations: See how the soldiers used their weapons during the Indian Wars. (Behind the Commissary Building)
          2:00 pm - Soapsuds Row, The Army Laundress at Fort Larned: Learn all about washboards, lye soap and laundry at the Post. (Behind the Barracks)
          3:00 pm - Soldiers of the Post: Find out if you have what it takes to be a frontier soldier. (In the Barracks)
          5:00 pm - Flag Retreat: Experience this traditional Army flag lowering ceremony done the 19th century way. (On the Parade Ground)
          Sunday, May 28 (add): 9:00 am - Nineteenth-Century Religious Service (In the Post Chapel)

Sneak Peek At New Fort Brochure
by Clayton Hanson, Park Ranger

     Bold, white text emblazoned on a black banner announces a location while a colorful image beneath hints at its meaning. Open it and stories burst from drawings, photographs, maps, and text. A park brochure can be many things - a first introduction, a treasure map, or a cherished souvenir - but it is always important. This fall, Fort Larned National Historic Site is getting a new one.

     The new design will help unfold the complex story of Fort Larned and the Indian Wars to new and old visitors alike. The lives of soldiers, American Indians, laundresses, African-American cavalrymen, Hispanic traders, and officers' wives will pepper its text and images.

     On one side, a bird's-eye view will soar over a busy spring day at the Fort, full of its day-to-day dynamism: bustling activity around the sutler's store, stagecoaches stopping for supplies, and Indian bands collecting annuities. It will be a time machine to an era when the post was full of life.

     On the other side, bison herds stretch toward a distant horizon beneath a map of the roads to Santa Fe. A timeline of U. S.-Indian relations shows changing policies.

     The new brochure will make plain to newcomers that Fort Larned was and is much more than a military outpost. It is a key to unlock the history of the Indian Wars and the roads to Santa Fe.

Rough Riding On The Plains (continued)
by Robert Morris Peck

     (Robert Morris Peck's memoirs, published in the National Tribune in 1901, telling about life at Camp on Pawnee Fork, renamed Camp Alert, continue with his account of life at the post during the winter of 1859-1860. Peck was assigned t courier duty, carrying a message from Lt. David Bell, commanding the post, to catch up with the mail at Peacock's Ranche at Walnut Creek. This turned out to be a dangerous assignment. Along the way he met a wolf hunter who had lost his partner to Indians and was fearful of survival himself. Peck thought he heard Indians on his trail during the night ride. When he arrived at Walnut Creek, he went to sleep. He wrote:)

     At daylight I turned out and ate breakfast with them, saddled up Tobe, delivered the two big letters to the mail conductor, and watched them roll out down the road for Cow Creek.

     After they had gone I went into the ranch and told Peacock and his men about the night's experience.

     They seemed very much interested in the wolf-hunter's fate, and finally John Adkins and Wild Bill said if I would wait a little while, they would saddle up and ride up the road with me, till we would meet him or find out what had become of him.

     It didn't take much persuasion to get me to wait for their company, but still I was anxious to be off, for I felt impatient to know what had become of the fellow and whether there had really been any Kiowas about, as old Tom had suspected.

     We were soon in the saddle moving along the road talking about the recent incidents, and the more we talked the more interested we became-the more anxious to hurry forward and find out something further of the wolf-hunter.

     Our anxiety kept us moving pretty briskly, and it was not long till we could see Pawnee Rock. About this time John Adkins called our attention to some moving objects away off on the prairie to our left, between the road and river. We halted and watched them a moment to get a better view, and then could distinguish that there were four mounted men, apparently Indians, moving in the direction of the river.

     As soon as we came to this conclusion we rode rapidly forward again discussing probabilities as we went. Wild Bill and Adkins were of the opinion that the mounted men we had seen were Kiowas; that they had seen us before we had noticed them, and had thought best to get out of the way. But whether they had found the wolf-hunter, and if so had they got his scalp? were exciting questions we were anxious to solve.

     We were soon beginning to read the story. In a little while we came in sight of his wagon standing on the road about opposite the Rock. His horse was lying down; still hitched to the wagon, but seemed dead. As yet no sign of life about the wagon.

     We had noticed all this as we galloped up, and were expecting next instant to find his scalped and mutilated body lying by the wagon, when just then the wolf-hunter himself crawled out from between some bales of wolf skins that he had placed about the wheels.

     His horse was dead but still lying in the harness as he had fallen. The man's left arm was tied up with an old handkerchief and seemed disabled. He looked pale and weak, which he quickly told us was from loss of blood, as he had not been able to stop the flow from the wounded arm.

     We hurriedly dismounted and unbound his arm to examine the wound, which we found to be an ugly gunshot in the fleshy part of the arm, but no bone broken. It was not seemingly dangerous, but as he explained to us, he had not had an opportunity to properly bandage it, it kept on bleeding and before he was aware of the fact he was growing quite weak from loss of blood.

     Giving our first attention to his wound we soon had the arm fixed up in safe bandages and a sling. All the time he was busy telling us about his "little fracas" with the Indians.

     "I was powerful glad to see you boys," he said. "I don't know as I ever wuz so glad to see any of my best friends as I wuz to see you thre strangers when you got close enough that I could see you wuz white men. I didn't know the Injuns had gone, for they'd kept a shootin' at me every time I'd move an' now an' then I'd take a pop at one of 'em to let 'em know I wuz still alive an' to stand 'em off a little furder.

     "By an' by they moved off behind that rise yonder an' I wuz a wonderin' what their next move would be when I heerd you fellows comin' a gallopin' up the road an' I thought it wuz the reds a comin' 'round from another direction. I swung round so as to give 'em the best I had in the shop, an' laid still till I wuz shore you wuz white men 'n then I crawled out. An', boys, you couldn't a picked a more acceptable time to pay me a visit."

     During this time while we were bandaging his arm he was seated on a bale of wolf skins, several of which he had tumbled out of the wagon at the first attack, after his horse was killed, and had placed them around the wheels and then crawled under the wagon and drawn the bales around him to protect himself from the Indians' bullets.

     He did not recognize me till I told him I was the man who had passed his camp at Ash Creek the night before.

     "Is that so?" he exclaimed. "Well, I've been a wonderin' what become of you, an' ef them redskins hadn't took you in; for jedgin' by the way they come at me they must have stayed over yonder by the Rock a waitin' fur me to come along, an' how you could a got by 'em without their hearin' or seein' you I can't understand."

     I then told him about the little bunch of buffalo coming from the direction of the bluff and crossing the road just ahead of me as I passed this place, and the men all said that the noise of the buffalo galloping over the prairie had probably kept the Indians from noticing me or hearing the sound of my horse's hoofs.

     "You see," continued the wolf-hunter, "I hadn't seed no sign of Injuns this mornin' as I come along the road till I got nearly opposite the Rock (Pawnee Rock), when suddenly four of the varnints rides out from behind the bluff an' come right to'rds me. I stopped my horse, grabbed my gun an' jumped out an' made signs to 'em to keep away. They halted an' h'isted a white rag on a stick to sign that they was friends an' wanted to come on. I warn't goin' to be fooled by no sich trick, so I raised my rifle an' give 'em to understan' if they come any closer I'd shoot. They stopped, an' one of 'em dismounted, an' while they seemed to be a councilin' together the dismounted one laid his rifle across his saddle, took a good rest, an' fired, killin' m hoss afore I knowed what he wuz up to. They then turned an' started off. I dropped to my knee, took aim at the one what shot my hoss an' let him have it.

     "He staggered an' nearly fell, but managed to crawl into the saddle an' rode off. They all stopped again an' one of 'em took a shot or two at me, hittin' me here in the arm, an' I'm just dead shore by the shot what killed my hoss an' this one they give me in the arm that it wuz my pard's Sharp's rifle what made them two shots; kaze I know they wuz too fur away to reach me with their old muzzle-loaders, they must be 'bout out of cartridges fur the Sharp's, fur my pard only had 'bout a dozen in his pocket when he left that day, an' I reckon they must have fired 'bout that many long-range shots at me.

     "After they runs outen cartridges fur that gun it'll be no use to 'em.

     "Well, as I wuz a sayin', my arm bled so an' hurt so all fired bad, that I thought I wuz done fur. I got out my ol' handkircher an' tied it up, but it kep' on a bleedin', an' the Injun seed I wuz hurt, an' they stopped to see if I wuz goin' to kick the bucket. To put that notion outer their heads I sent another ball a knockin' up the dust under 'em an' giv 'em to understan' I wuz bettern' two dead men yit.

     "I then pulled out some bales of skins from the wagon, put 'em an' 'round the wheels, crawled in between 'em an' made up my mind to sell out to the best advantage.

     "My Sharp's rifle would throw a ball so much furder'n their ol' muzzle-loaders that I knowd I could stan' 'em off as long as my cartridges held out, if I didn't bleed to death, for the blood wuz still a runnin' from my sleeve, an' I felt like I wuz gittin' weak. that long-range gun of their'n kep' a knockin' the splinters off my wagon every little but an' kep' me a dodgin'.

     "By an' by they divided. Two of 'em stayed on that side to'rds the Rock, an' t'other two rode 'round to the south of me.

     "Seein' what they wuz up to, I pulled out some more bales of hides an' laid 'em on that side. when the two that had gone to the south side got in among them swells an' low places they left their hosses an' crawled up behind that patch of prickly pears, whar they could reach me with their muzzle loaders, an' laid thar a poppin' at me every time I'd move. I begun to think they'd w'ar me out yit.

     "Bout this time the two what wuz on the north side rode 'round an jined the others. This must a bin when they seed you'ens a comin', for thar wuz no more shootin' after that, an' as the ground is a little uneven out that away, I didn't see 'em ridin' away, kaze I darnent poke my nose out from behind a bale of skins fur fear I' get it shot off.

     "An' the fust thing I know'd you wuz here an' I'm powerful much obleged to you, boys."

     We soon determined that the only way to get him and his wagon to the ranch was to take the harness off the dead horse, push the wagon along to clear the carcass, then get out the other harness and harness up the horses of Wild Bill and Adkins. We soon had them hitched up, everything loaded into the wagon, the wolf hunter placed in a comfortable position, and all ready for a start. One of the bronchos balked at first, but with a little coaxing we soon got him agoing, and away they went down the road to Walnut Creek.

     As I stood watching them get started the wolf hunter bid me good-by, and thanked me for having "helped him out," as he explained it, calling out to me as they got under way:

     "Keep your eye skinned, young fellow; thar' may be more of the red devils a layin' fur you 'bout the crossin' of Ash Creek. After you pass thar you'll be purty safe."

     I promised to keep a sharp lookout, bid all good-by, and went cantering up the road towards Camp Alert.

     As I approached the crossing of Ash Creek, according to our usual tactics in such cases, I made a detour, crossing the little branch through the timber at some distance above the road, but neither saw nor heard Indians nor observed fresh signs.

     I reached our quarters at Camp Alert somewhat after noon, rode immediately to Lieut. Bell's quarters, dismounted, knocked at the door, and as he appeared saluted, reporting:

     "Back from Walnut Creek, sir, and delivered the dispatches all right."

     "Very well," as he returned the salute. "Any sign of Indians along the road?"

     "Yes sir." I then gave him a brief account of my trip going and coming.

     As he dismissed me to my quarters the boys who had overheard some of my remarks about Indians came crowding around me, asking many questions. I answered them:

     "Boys, I'm as hungry as a wolf. Give me a chance to fill up, and I'll tell you all about it. But I come pretty near finding some Kiowas that I hadn't lost."

     Crowly took my horse to the stable, and Dave Harrison told me to go on into the cook house and call for grub, at the same time giving me a knowing wink as he struck off into the timber.

     While I was eating and giving an account of my trip to the crowd that had followed me into the kitchen, Dave came in, pulling from under his blouse a black bottle and handed it to me.

     "Dave, is this some of the 10-gallon keg I borrowed from the Mail Agent before I went off?"

     "You bet yer boots! An' powerful good truck it is. Regular old-fashioned peach brandy."

     "Try it," said Crowly, coming in. "It'll put hair on you as long as a goat."

     As I looked around at the boys and smiled, I must have exhibited a very open countenance, for one of the Irishmen declared that my face "looked like a two bit watermelon with a five-cent slice cut out." Turning the bottle up I remarked, "You know it ain't often I indulge, boys, but this is one of the times," and taking a small drink handed it back to Dave.
     (to be continued)

Use Smile.Amazon To Benefit Fort Larned Old Guard
     The request for readers to use Smile.Amazon to benefit the Old Guard in the last issue mistakenly gave the incorrect sign-in for the website. The correct sign-in is Smile.Amazon. Fort Larned Old Guard has received donations from several orders, all greatly appreciated. If you order from Amazon, please consider using Smile.Amazon and choose Fort Larned Old Guard, Inc. for your donations. Thank you.

Fort Hays Celebrating 150 Years
     New Fort Hays was established in 1867, and the Society of Friends of Historic Fort Hays has planned a series of programs during the year (please see insert with the schedule).

New Memberships
Fort Larned Old Guard welcomes the following new members:
     Dennis Werner, 401 Hall St, Spearville KS 67876

     May 27-29, 2017: Living-History Weekend at Fort Larned, Kansas
     July 4, 2017: Independence Day Special Events at Fort Larned, Kansas
     Sept. 2-4, 2017: Labor Day Weekend Special Events at Fort Larned, Kansas

Speaker Tour on!
     Fort Hays 150 Years Guarding the Plains 1867-2017

Notice: If you would prefer to receive OUTPOST as a pdf file via email to save paper and postage, please send a note to the editor at {}. You will see color photos in color and may print out the newsletter if you want a hard copy. Thank you.

Membership Reminder
     Annual memberships in the Fort Larned Old Guard expire on December 31. If you have not renewed for 2017, please send dues to membership chair Linda Peters, 1035 S Bridge St, Lakin KS 67860. Additional donations are always welcome to assist with projects of the Old Guard. Thank you so much for all your support!!!

Deadline for next issue: August 1, 2017

Fort Larned Old Guard Contact Information
     The officers, members of the board of directors, dues information and email's are listed on this page of Information. Please feel free to contact any of us.

Schedule of Annual Events
     True to life stories of the Indian Wars along the Santa Fe Trail, brought to life by some of the greatest volunteers in the West. . . ! Visit the most complete Indian fort surviving from the days when Custer and Buffalo Bill Cody rode through this part of the West on their missions. Original restored buildings to that time period, a visitor center, Park Rangers will guide you through this adventure of the Old West.

Memorial Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday & Monday) largest living history event in western Kansas - experience a working frontier fort.

Labor Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday, & Monday) Re-enactors bring Fort Larned back to life for the holiday weekend.

Candlelight Tour (2nd Saturday of October) Entertaining evening tours with vignettes from the fort's history.

Christmas Open House (2nd Saturday of December) Old-fashioned Yuletide celebration with hot apple cider, cookies and Christmas carols.

     Fort Larned National Historic Site is a unit of the U.S. National Park Service located six miles west of Larned on Kansas Highway 156. Open 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p. m. daily, the park's Visitor Center/Museum and all furnished buildings are admission free. Information on Fort Larned may be found at {}, by calling 620-285-6911, or by sending email to {}.

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