Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter
Volume 31, Number 2 ~*~ Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West ~*~ Autumn 2020

Company "H", 5th US Vols. Infantry
by Ben Long, 1st Lieutenant and Co. Commander

     The year is 1865 and the ranks of the Union Army are unable to fight the rebellious Confederate Army and also protect pioneers and military outposts out west. Since the fall of 1864, captured Confederate soldiers have been enlisted to protect states and territories on the western front, where they wouldn't have to fight against their former brothers in arms. On April 14, 1865, Company "H", 5th United States Volunteer Infantry was mustered in to join the ranks of men otherwise known as "Galvanized Yankees." In the end, six regiments totaling about 6,000 former Confederate soldiers were formed to help protect the West against Plains Indian attacks. Despite the cause they fought for in the past, these men took an oath to change their exterior appearance and actions. It wasn't long before the Galvanized Yankees, as a whole, proved themselves to be trustworthy and admirable. This era was short lived, however, and Company "H", 5th USVI was the last of the Galvanized Yankees to be mustered out in November 1866. Little was known of the Galvanized Yankees after that until Dee Brown's book, The Galzanized Yankees, 1963, and later studies. However, you may know a line uttered by a former Galvanized Yankee: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"

     Company "H", during most of its service, was commanded by 1st Lieutenant Charles H. Hoyt from Lawrence, Kansas. I started portraying Hoyt here at the Fort this past summer. Hoyt was only 22 years of age when he was called out of civilian life to be a commissioned officer of this odd group of men. Previously, Hoyt had been a bugler in the 9th Kansas Cavalry during the Civil War and traveled the Santa Fe Trail with that regiment. After learning so much about this young lieutenant and the men he commanded, I got an itch - an itch I couldn't resist. Fort Larned is the perfect place, I thought, to be the home base of a re-enacting group. Since I had come to know this historic group so well, I figured they would be the perfect one to portray. Though I'm still working on finding records that say they were stationed here, I did find records of one man from Company "H" who was sick in the adobe hospital here in June 1865. While I hope we can attend re-enactments elsewhere in the future, for now, the barracks are the perfect place for the unit to eat and sleep for the weekends they are here. I do also hope this will not only help those who want to share history, but also help to increase visitation to the Fort as this group will most likely participate in more than just the regularly scheduled annual events.

     If you're interested in finding out more about this historic group of men, Company "H" has it's own Facebook {} and email {}. And if you're interested in representing this unit at Fort Larned and elsewhere, know that we are always looking for new members and would love to have you.

Lt. Charles H. Hoyt, Co. "H", 5th U. S. Vols. Infantry - - - - - Ben Long portraying Lt. Charles H. Hoyt

Fort Larned National Historic Site
Larned Ks. Christmas Parade
by Ben Long, Park Ranger

     This last year has changed the way we have done things and made us think about things we perhaps took for granted before. For small towns like Larned, annual parades are an important tradition to uphold. However, with the current conditions in the area, having a traditional parade was not an option. The city of Larned had a solution---a reverse parade. With floats stationary and lining the street on both sides of Broadway, local citizens were able to drive up and down the street, waving, cheering, and wishing all a Merry Christmas.

     One goal that has started with the help of the Santa Fe Trail Center and Museum's new director, Seth McFarland, is to collaborate more. The Trail Center secured a spot on the parade route, and we were more than happy to help. Kristin Keith and I were able to stand on the float, smiling, waving and wishing the onlookers a Merry Christmas. Also on the float were flickering lanterns that, if any of you attended this year's Candlelight Tour, you saw around the Fort. Pulling an original sleigh from the Trail Center was one of our model horses who stood remarkably still for the entire parade!

     Though we didn't earn a spot in the top three, we had a fantastic time and we can't wait to see what our partnership with the Trail Center will bring this coming year.

Fort Larned Old Guard Chair's Column
by Janet Armstead

     You might think, because we've been unable to get together, that things are not happening, but "au contraire!" We have not met since our October Zoom meeting. We do continue to have the pop machine at the Visitor Center stocked with the flavors the staff likes the most - since they are the only ones allowed in. Covid-19 restrictions still apply and will for the near future. There has been one very important development.

     Your board has been very concerned about the upkeep and insurance costs of maintaining the Sibley Camp site property in Larned. Several people interested in the property contacted us. The property has been sold. We are thankful to have this property transferred to someone who will maintain the signs and keep it looking nice.

     Cold weather and snow have finally decided to make an entrance. As you are hunkered down because of the virus and cold weather, are you ordering needed items from Amazon? If you haven't yet, please think of ordering from Amazon Smile with Fort Larned Old Guard as your designated charity of choice. It is a small amount that is donated, but every little bit helps.

     One of our current expenses that could be reduced is the printing and mailing of Outpost. If you will accept digital delivery, please let the editor know {}. Printed copies will be mailed to museums, libraries, and those who do not have email service.

     At this point, because of Covid-19 and recommendation of Fort Larned National Historic Site superintendent and staff, we have decided to cancel Mess and Muster again this year. We will Zoom our April board meeting. We are looking forward to the day the Visitor Center can open again and plans made for the dedication of the new exhibits. Vaccines are starting to get out to some of us "older" folks. There is hope in sight! Keep the faith and keep on keeping on!

Superintendent's Corner
by Betty Boyko

     I hope everyone was able to safely celebrate the holidays and would like to extend my hopes for a better New Year moving into 2021.

     This past year was certainly a challenging one for the Fort Larned staff. Our Visitor Center remains closed and visitation has been down. However that hasn't stopped the interpreters from providing quality experiences for our visitors. Our blacksmith Pete has been in the Blacksmith Shop delighting visitors with his popular blacksmithing demonstrations and we were able to have scaled down versions of most of our living-history events. Most notably, we were able to modify our Candlelight Tour program to safely present it to the public.

     For the past year a lot of our interpretive focus shifted to online and virtual experiences, especially with schools. We have provided several long-distance educational programs and should have more in the months to come. The long-distance programs have been presented using the new iPad and data service purchased by the Old Guard. We were not able to hold our traditional Christmas Open House, but we did produce a virtual event. If you missed the video about Santa's adventures at Fort Larned, you can find it on our Facebook page at {} and our website: {}.

     We are hopeful that with the approval of COVID-19 vaccines we may soon be able to open our Visitor Center and even have a scaled down dedication of our new museum exhibits. The timing will depend on the availability and distribution of the vaccines, but it should only be a matter of time before we can get back to providing regular in-person interpretive services for our visitors again.

     Thank you for your support and may you all have a safe and healthy New Year.

Thank You!
by Brian Miller, Park Ranger

     With school groups largely unable to travel, Fort Larned has been providing a variety of distance learning programs. This would not be possible without Fort Larned Old Guard"S recent purchase of the iPad with a built-in cellular data plan. We have been able to connect with a variety of grades at schools throughout the region, offering programs on a variety of topics including the daily life of a frontier soldier, Buffalo Soldiers, and the Santa Fe Trail. Because the iPad is highly mobile, programs can be conducted from any building at the Fort. While we look forward to the return of in-person groups, the iPad will also enable us to reach schools that may be too far to travel to the Fort. Thank you for enabling us to reach these students!

Setup for a distance learning program

Fort Larned Roll Call: Kenny Reneau
by Ben Long, Park Ranger

     It is always nice to see new faces among the staff at Fort Larned as well as seeing new perspectives from those new faces. Kenny Reneau is no exception. I was able to have a short interview to get to know Kenny a little better, and I am astonished at the level of experience he is able to bring to the Fort.

     A Kansas native, Kenny has lived in the greater Larned area his whole life. Kenny comes to us with over 30 years of experience in the private sector, where he says things are run much differently than they are here at Fort Larned National Historic Site. From the previous times the Maintenance Mechanic position has been open here at the Fort, Kenny has had an interest, but the timing never worked out - until now. So, he applied to the position and was able to start his new job right around Christmas time. From his time working in the private sector, Kenny has become a jack of all trades, which will do nothing but help him in his position as Maintenance Mechanic. In addition to working on the park's cars, tractors, mowers, and UTV's, he will be working on electrical issues and he's also looking at getting the right certifications to work with our water system as well. One tough part of this job that Kenny is working on getting used to is the emphasis on safety and hazardous communication that he didn't have as much of in his previous jobs. Where in the private sector, the mentality is to get a project done as quickly as possible, the mentality at Fort Larned is to get the job done the right and safe way every time. Since starting his job here, Kenny has been soaking up training and has already done quite a bit of work upgrading the sinks at the Picnic Area, changing them from manual to automatic, touchless sinks.

     We are glad to have Kenny working with us and we are looking forward to working with him!

Volunteer Roll Call: Dave Goins
by Ben Long, Park Ranger

     Here at Fort Larned we love it when we have folks with friendly faces and are easy to hold a conversation with. Our latest Volunteer-in-Parks (ViP) is just this type of person. Dave Goins started volunteering with us shortly after the New Year and plans to be with us for a few months, working both with Interpretation and Maintenance. Though I have had the pleasure of talking with Dave only a couple of times, we have had great conversations and it is very quickly evident that he has a true love for history, especially Civil War era history.

     Although he's originally from Iowa, Dave has had experiences and jobs all over the country. Not too long after high school, Dave was drafted and because of his prior experience and expertise in working with electricity, he chose the Navy, the only branch with a position completely dedicated to the task. After six years in the Navy, Dave found himself working for a contractor in the Pentagon before starting his career in Civil Service in the Department of the Navy. During his career, Dave worked on aircraft carriers in Maryland and South Carolina. It was while he was in South Carolina that the Confederate submarine, the Hunley, was brought to the surface. Responding to a call for volunteers, Dave and his wife assisted in the unrav -eling of the mysteries that surrounded this vessel and its crew of nine. I could tell that Dave could remember, like it was yesterday, his five-mile walk as part of the color guard for the funeral procession of one of the nine men who, for over one hundred years, were buried on the ocean floor in their metal vessel. After retiring from the Department of the Navy, Dave and his wife have been traveling the country as camp hosts and volunteers for KOA, Zion National Park, US Fish and Wildlife, and most recently, Cape Hatteras National Seashore.

     Dave Goins Volunteering at Cape Hatteras National Seashore

     We look forward to the next few months with Dave and we hope some of you will be able to meet him in that time.

Virtual Christmas Open House
by Brian Miller, Park Ranger

     In lieu of the annual Christmas Open House, the Fort offered a virtual event. Santa couldn't decide who was naughty or who was nice at Fort Larned in the year of 1867, so he decided to visit the post in person. Viewers could watch as Santa became a soldier for a day, getting a uniform, finding his bunk, eating a meal in the mess hall, and learning how to march properly. By the end of the day, it was very clear to Santa who was naughty and who was nice.

     If you missed the post, it can still be found on the Fort Larned Facebook page or on the park's website.
The virtual event was filmed entirely on location at Fort Larned, utilizing the Fort's staff and volunteers, so you may see many familiar faces!

The Enlisted Men of Company C, Third Infantry
Part XXI - Thomas Jacobs
by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger

     (Fort Larned's main interpretive year is 1868, which is the year the stone buildings were completed. Company C, 3rd U.S. Infantry, was stationed at Fort Larned during that year and part of the research for the restoration of the barracks and hospital building was finding out information for most of these enlisted men. That information was compiled in the Historic Furnishing Study: Enlisted Men's Barracks and Post Hospital, HS-2. Here is the twenty-first installment in a series on the enlisted men whose information is included in that report. There are no photos available for these enlisted soldiers.)

     Up next on our list is Thomas Jacobs, who had an interesting time at Fort Larned. He spent most of his time on company duty with short stints as company cook, on escort duty, reporting to sick call for various illnesses, and in confinement.

     Jacobs enlisted in the Army on March 23, 1866 at Camp Kearney in the Dakota Territory. By 1868 he was at Fort Larned and started the year off on company duty in January. He remained on company duty until the middle of February when he was placed in confinement for attacking Julius Klinegunther in the company barracks.

     Jacobs called Klinegunther a "son of a bitch" and then hit him. The company commander ordered First Sergeant David Roche to have Jacobs taken to the guardhouse. Corporal Richard Bullock was escorting Jacobs to the guard house when Jacobs saw Klinegunther and threw a rock at him, challenging him to a fight. While he was in the guard house, Jacobs constantly threatened to kill Klinegunther after he got out. There isn't any information on what caused the confrontation, or why Jacobs was so angry with Klinegunther.

     Jacobs' court-martial was in early March, and despite pleading not guilty he was found guilty and sentenced to one month in confinement in the guardhouse. The first two weeks of his sentence he spent in solitary confinement with only bread and water. The last two weeks he served at hard labor. Jacobs also forfeited one month's pay.

     Once released from confinement, Jacobs went back on company duty from April through July. During that time, he reported to sick call several times with "intestinal" problems. In June and July, he had constipation, which kept him off duty for a few days each time.

     In August, Jacobs was serving as company cook. He reported to sick call twice that month, once on the 2nd for diarrhea, and again on the 22nd for a boil. Both times he returned to duty within a couple of days.

     In September, Jacobs was on company duty until the 5th, when he was assigned to escort duty to Fort Dodge. Once he returned to Fort Larned on the 12th he went back to company duty for the rest of the month. He also spent October and November on company duty.

     Jacobs started December on company duty but was placed in confinement again on the 19th for leaving his guard post and returning to his company quarters before his relief arrived. He remained in confinement until his court-martial in February 1869. Again, despite his not guilty plea, he was found guilty. This time he was sentenced to three months hard labor while wearing a 12-pound ball attached to his ankle by a four-foot chain. He also forfeited $10 a month in pay for the time he was confined.

     Thomas Jacobs represented the type of soldier who could conform to Army rules and regulations for the most part but occasionally had trouble obeying them. He seemed to have trouble with his temper, as well as impatience with Army rules and regulations. There is no information on whether he stayed in the Army or not, but given the troubles he went through at Fort Larned he probably had a rough career if he stayed in.

Candles At Fort Larned in 1868
by Sam Young, Fort Larned National Historic Site Volunteer

     On a cold late autumn evening, as I sat back in my chair at the table in the parlor on the south side of the North Officers' Quarters, I contemplated what I wanted to write in my Journal. As a living historian wanting to experience what it might have been like to live in those quarters in 1868, I had decided to use only candles for my lighting. Not wanting to waste candles, I had brought into the parlor one of the two candles I used in the kitchen and extinguished the other one. Coming from the 21st century and being used to ample electric lights to provide what was probably more light than necessary, it was very dark. The one candle put out very little light. I had to position the candle so I could see where I wanted to write in the journal.

     That experience, almost ten years ago, came to mind as I studied the new Fort Larned National Historic Site pamphlet with the exceptionally detailed painting of Fort Larned on a typical spring day in 1868. I immediately had the thought, how many candles would it take to provide necessary lighting on that day? Yes, the seasons of the year determine the amount of daylight from the sun, as does the darkness of night based on the moon and the stars, and the effects of weather. Even the shade of the paint used in the rooms impacts the effect of available light. That was very true in the kitchen of the officers' quarters where I "lived." The walls were painted a dark green. Even with several candles or an electric light bulb, it was still very dark when trying to cook.

     When the question about the number of candles used on the day shown in the pamphlet entered my mind, which was all I knew was used at Fort Larned in 1868 as kerosene lamps had never been mentioned. Then, approximately a year later, George Elmore put a kerosene lamp in my quarters and one in the quarters on the north side in which Captain Nicholas Nolan might have lived. George told me he hoped to add more kerosene lamps over the next few years.

     Thus, there were two sources of artificial light at Fort Larned: candles and kerosene lamps. Both will be highlighted in this article, but there is limited written documentation available for research. Unfortunately, no one who experienced Fort Larned on a spring day in 1868 is alive. There may be diary entries and letters some place, but none are at Fort Larned National Historic Site. While there may be old reports and records buried someplace in government repositories and/or libraries, searching for them is not on my bucket list. And very little information on this topic is in the files at Fort Larned National Historic Site. But, we have a "living encyclopedia" with George's 45+ years at Fort Larned National Historic Site, thanks to all his reading and research. So, we have to use the knowledge we have and speculate on the rest. So, let's start with the enlisted soldiers and candles.

     According to the article, "The Quartermaster's Department, 1861-1864," author unknown, found in the September-October 1928 issue of The Quartermaster Review, "the regulations provide that each man shall be entitled to a certain fixed amount daily, which amount is designated 'a ration.' Rations consist of beef, salt and fresh, pork, bacon flour, pilot or hard bread, cornmeal, coffee, sugar, beans, peas, rice, hominy, molasses, vinegar, soap, candles, and desiccated vegetables. The latter are usually potatoes, cut scalded, dried, and put up in barrels. When thus prepared they have very much the appearance of coarse cornmeal, and are used as a preventive of scurvy. Each day's ration-subsistence for one man-in bulk averages 3 pounds in weight." These rations were generally garrison rations, as soldiers in the field would usually be issued salt pork or bacon, hard bread, and coffee.

     In the book The 1865 Customs of Service for Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers, by August V. Kautz, are tables showing quantity and bulk of any number of rations from 1 to 100,000. Since each soldier was issued one ration each day, the tables list each item and show the weight of each. A soldier received one candle each day and its weight was 0.2 ounces. But did each soldier actually receive his one candle every day? Read on.

     Each soldier did not personally go to the Fort Larned Commissary to get his rations; that was the responsibility of the Company Commissary Sergeant. He went to the Commissary, when necessary, and drew, in bulk, the ten days of rations authorized for his company's "present-for-duty" soldiers, those confined in the guardhouse, and the company laundresses. (Reference the Spring 2015 Fort Larned Outpost). Rations for the company's soldiers in the Hospital were drawn by the Hospital steward.

     Back at the company's barracks the rations went to the company's kitchen. The food items were stored until prepared for meals. The soap was issued out as necessary to wash dishes, pots, and pans; for the laundresses to wash clothes; and to the soldiers for bathing. The candles were also issued out as needed for use in the company area which included the barracks (kitchen, mess hall, company office/first sergeant's office/bedroom, the soldier on duty between Taps and Reveille as "charge of quarters", and the barracks "bedroom"), laundresses' quarters/laundry wash rooms, latrines, bakery, and the guardhouse.

     For the soldiers bivouacked under canvas at Fort Larned, they may have been there for anywhere from one day to perhaps several weeks. They received the same daily ration as the garrisoned soldiers. They would not have had laundresses, but they might have detailed a soldier to work in the bakery if they wanted fresh bread, and one or more of their soldiers might have been in the guardhouse. Since they were not in buildings where the walls would have blocked the daylight, they probably used fewer candles than the barracks soldiers.

     Let us next consider the artificial lighting used by the officers. Since they did not receive rations, they had to buy what they needed. They could shop at either the post sutler's store or at the Post Commissary, which was much cheaper but with limited selections. For example, at the sutler's store they could buy candles and candle lanterns as well as kerosene and kerosene lamps, but the Commissary sold candles and not kerosene and lamps. So, what did they use for lighting? It depended on what they could afford and probably available living space, since the junior officers each had a single small room, it was likely they used candles. Whereas captains and higher ranking officers probably used a combination of both candles and kerosene.

     The only Fort Larned National Historic Site information available with the price for candles and kerosene available for Fort Larned for the period of the pamphlet (spring 1868) is the Post Council of Administration record which set the prices the Post Sutler can charge for the items he sells. It is dated 30 December 1865 and shows a gallon of kerosene costs $2.25. Leo Oliva in his book on Fort Larned shows candles in 1863 cost 25 cents each at the trading post.

     What about lighting for the Fort's Headquarters/Adjutant's Office, Commissary, Quartermaster, and Shops (less the Bakery) buildings? On 2 February 1868, a letter was received from Brevet Major W. Bell, District of the Upper Arkansas, Fort Harker, stating that "candles cannot be issued to the headquarters of a Post but can be purchased by the Post Fund from the Commissary." Unfortunately, nothing has been found in writing about candles for those other buildings-the Commissary, Quartermaster, and Shops less Bakery. It is safe to state they were probably paid for from the Post Fund, to include other office supplies and equipment. The Hospital had its own funding for candles, etc. from the Medical Department.

     George did tell me that in 1867 the Army considered kerosene a dangerous fuel and forbid its use at military posts. He said that prohibition only lasted a few years. He also said he can document, from available Company Funds records, kerosene being used in the barracks in 1868. He believes officers and the sutler never quit using kerosene.

     As you look at the pamphlet, you will see several buildings in the lower left-hand corner and another in the lower center. These belong to the sutler and the Indian agency. It is probable they used only kerosene lamps.

     However, on the lower right side of the print are the teamsters' quarters and the cavalry stables. The teamsters (QM) and, like other QM and Commissary civilian employees, had to purchase their candles or kerosene from the Post Sutler. My guess is the teamsters used candles because they would frequently be away driving freight wagons. However, soldiers detailed to work for the Hospital, Post QM, and Commissary received their daily rations through their assigned cavalry or infantry companies.

     The cavalry used candles in the stables as candle lanterns were found in the ashes of the burnt stables. The candles, like the grain, hay, straw, and horse shoes, were issued by the government.

     In the upper right-hand corner you will see the Quartermaster Wagon Yard and Stables, and the Mail Station. Since the QM Wagon Yard and Stables were part of Fort Larned, candles would have been used and paid for by the Post Fund. The Mail Station was contracted to the Post Sutler, and would have used kerosene lamps.

     Last, but definitely not least, were the civilians traveling on the Santa Fe Trail or living in the area of Fort Larned. Those traveling had very limited space and carried only what they had too. Since, to them, artificial lighting was more of a luxury, let's presume they purchased candles from the sutler. Whereas, settlers probably purchased kerosene since it would have been cheaper in the long run, and one kerosene lamp puts out more light than one candle.

     So, my question was how many candles would it take to provide necessary lighting on that day? Per George, the daily average number of soldiers assigned to the Fort Larned garrison in 1868 was 300. Since 1868 was a Leap Year, the math shows the total number of candles issued for that year was 109,800 candles-1,260 pounds. But to determine the number used during the spring day in 1868 shown in the pamphlet from the 300 issued can only be estimated. Whatever the number, it would be less than a winter day and more than a summer day. And remember, these candles do not include the number of candles used in the Post buildings, the Hospital, and the soldiers temporarily at Fort Larned! We probably would not be far off count if we said the additional number of candles was 300.

     Another point to consider: it is possible Company Funds might have been used to purchase several kerosene lamps for use in the company mess hall and the company office. And the laundresses may have purchased kerosene lamps since they often worked during non-daylight hours.

     But did each soldier actually receive his one candle every day? No, but he did benefit from the light it provided within his company's area.

     It should be noted that the annual Candlelight Tour at Fort Larned may be seen as a reflection of the importance of candles in life at the historic post.

Maintenance Matters
by William Chapman, Facility Manager

     Greetings once again from the park's facility team. We recently filled the vacant maintenance mechanic position, and Kenny Reneau is the newest member of the park maintenance staff.

     We completed the repairs to the fence and continue to repair the roof of the Adjutant Office exhibit as fair weather allows. When weather prevented some outdoor efforts, we have been updating the carpenter shop, cleaning shop equipment, and replacing cabinets that mice have been able to infest over the years.

     Since Kenny's entrance on duty, we have been modernizing our sinks in the comfort station restroom and will be updating the sinks in the visitor center very soon.

     The park has also invested in sanitizing equipment as part of our COVID response. Mat is using this equipment daily to treat all buildings in the park. An atomizing dispenser allows us to treat all structures with ease. Another COVID prevention treatment we have done is the installation of Air Scrubber(TM) in the duct work of the visitor center and administration office HVAC units.

     As part of the on boarding process of new employees we provide safety training on many subjects such as Hazardous Communication, Blood Born Pathogens, etc. In the last Outpost I wrote of fire extinguishers using the PASS acronym. This time I recommend a link to Ladder Safety training. This is not just for the employees but our friends as well. We all have worked from an elevated platform or ladder around the house and some of us have had accidents. This short video provides good sound instruction on the different types of ladders, their uses, and how to select the correct one for your needs. I hope you find it useful: Safety Toolbox Talks: Ladder Safety - YouTube.

     We also just completed another environmental audit which is performed every two years by a third party and contracted to evaluate our environmental programs at the Fort. Elements of the program include annual chemical inventory, universal and hazardous waste storage and disposal, hazardous communication, training and records management. We did very well with this audit and had just a few minor findings that need correction.

     I am not sure if many of you know that, as the Facility Manager at Fort Larned, I also have duties with Nicodemus National Historic Site. For the past several months, I have been overseeing for the government a construction contract for the rehabilitation of the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. This will be ending in the next month and, as COVID plans will allow, will be open to the public. This and other projects at the Fort have been very rewarding to witness a building returned to useful life.

     I have been working with my former work unit Historic Preservation Training Center (HPTC) and the Conservation Legacy for two interns that will be fostered via HPTC Traditional Trade Apprentice Program. These Interns will be working, gaining knowledge, and training in preservation skills with the park's preservation team. This 20-week program will be accepting applications in February and interns will be on-board in April.

     We are also going to have a very busy summer and fall this year with four projects that have been funded via special funding programs. So look forward to some preservation and construction work over the summer.

Fort Larned in the News
From Janesville (Wisconsin) Daily Gazette, January 19, 1865
A Horrible Wretch

     A correspondent of the Bangor Whig, writing from Fort Larned, Kansas, says the Indians are very troublesome but the slaughter of them is very inhuman. A story is told of a Captain who dismounted to shoot an Indian and while in the act, his horse strolled off. A young and beautiful squaw girl caught his horse and led him back to the officer. He took the bridle, and as the young girl fell on her knees and implored his protection, he snapped his revolver, but the cap refused to do so dastardly an act of inhumanity. But the monster, disguised in the American uniform, placed on another cap and blew out her brains. Many other acts are related, equally as revolting.

The Junction City Weekly Union, May 18, 1865
     A company of troops will leave Council Grove on the 1st and 15th of each month, for Fort Larned, which will escort all trains and travelers which may be assembled at that point on the days named.

Santa Fe Weekly Post, May 20, 1865
Attack on Trains:

     The last mail from the East brought news of an attack upon the trains of Mr. Kitchen and Mr. Sena, both of San Miguel, made by the Indians between Cow Creek and Walnut Creek, about fifty miles east of Fort Larned. Four men are reported killed in the attack upon Mr. Kitchen's train and three in that upon Mr. Sena's. The former was coming in this direction loaded with corn for the government and the latter was going east for freight. It is to be regretted that sufficient escorts have not been furnished on the eastern part of the road to prevent these attacks.

The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 16, 1865
An Indian War Threatened

     A letter from Senator Doolittle, at Fort Larned, to Hon. James Harlan. Secretary of the Interior, expresses apprehensions of an extensive Indian war on the Upper Arkansas. The Cheyennes, Kiowas, Camauches and Arapahoes, numbering live to seven thousand warriors, are all banded together to make war on the exposed settlements. The Senator believes that peace can be made with the chiefs if justice is done them. They have lost confidence in the whites from the cowardly butchery of the Cheyennes at Sand Creek, an affair in which the blame was on our side.

     The Cheyennes are for war to the knife. Senator Doolittle has asked for authority to offer indemnity to them for their losses at Sand Creek, because it is just. If we offer it, and they refuse it, he thinks we may detach the other tribes from them, and weaken the forces of the hostile tribes, and prevent an extensive war, which will cost millions of dollars and sacrifice hundreds of lives. The attention of the Secretary of War has been called to the subject.

The Baltimore Sun, December 12, 1865
Indian Affairs

     The Commissioner of Indian Affairs received a letter from J. R. Graves, United States Special Indian Agent at Fort Larned. He represents that very little trouble had been experienced with the hostile bands of Indians which infested the plains. Little Robe, Chief of the Cheyennes called at Fort Larned, and stated that he and his warriors acknowledged their allegiance to the government and expressed their determination to abide by and strictly observe the recent treaty made with their tribe. The Indians who committed the recent depredations belong to the band of Dog Indians, otherwise known as outcasts. The loyal Indians are anxious to join the government forces and assist in exterminating this entire band. They believe that the next scene of bloodshed will be on the route between Fort Dodge and Fort Larned as hostile bands, numbering over 2,000 Indians are collecting on the route with a view to destroying the overland coaches.

Outpost Going To Digital Delivery
     The request in the last Outpost for those who can to consider switching to digital delivery elicited several responses. Most agreed to go digital and some requested regular mail. We will continue to send paper copies to libraries, museums, and other institutions that keep issues on file, as well as individuals who cannot go digital.

     If you do not have the equipment to receive digital copies, a paper copy will be sent (please send a note to Outpost, PO Box 1, Woodston KS 67675 to request a paper copy). If you now receive a paper copy but can receive digital issues, please e-mail your approval to the editor: {} All volunteers who now receive a paper copy, unless you have already requested a printed issue, will be removed from the distribution list if you do not respond before the May issue. We appreciate your help in making this transition. If you have any questions, please contact the editor. Thank you.

New Membership
Fort Larned Old Guard welcomes the following new members:

     Kent Chapman, 1724 W 15th Ave, Emporia KS 66801
     Thank you for your support.

     Fort Larned Old Guard"s annual Mess & Muster has been canceled for this year.
     Election of directors will be conducted by mail.

May 1, 2021

     Notice: If you would prefer to receive OUTPOST as a pdf file via email to save paper and postage, please send a note to the editor at {}. You will see color photos in color and may print out the newsletter if you want a hard copy. Thank you.

Membership Reminder
     Annual memberships in the Fort Larned Old Guard expire on December 31. If you have not renewed for 2021, please send dues to membership chair Linda Peters, 1035 S Bridge St, Lakin KS 67860. Additional donations are always welcome to assist with projects of the Old Guard. Thank you so much for all your support!!!

Fort Larned Old Guard Contact Information
     The officers, members of the board of directors, dues information and email's are listed on this page of Information. Please feel free to contact any of us.

Schedule of Annual Events
     True to life stories of the Indian Wars along the Santa Fe Trail, brought to life by some of the greatest volunteers in the West. . . ! Visit the most complete Indian fort surviving from the days when Custer and Buffalo Bill Cody rode through this part of the West on their missions. Original restored buildings to that time period, a visitor center, Park Rangers will guide you through this adventure of the Old West.

     Memorial Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday & Monday) largest living history event in western Kansas - experience a working frontier fort.

     Labor Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday, & Monday) Re-enactors bring Fort Larned back to life for the holiday weekend.

     Candlelight Tour (2nd Saturday of October) Entertaining evening tours with vignettes from the fort's history.

     Christmas Open House (2nd Saturday of December) Old-fashioned Yuletide celebration with hot apple cider, cookies and Christmas carols.

     Fort Larned National Historic Site is a unit of the U.S. National Park Service located six miles west of Larned, Kansas on Kansas Highway 156. Open 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p. m. daily, the park's Visitor Center/Museum and all furnished buildings are admission free. They also have a great book store! Information on Fort Larned may be found at {www.National Park}, by calling 620-285-6911, or by sending email to {fols_superintendent@National Park}.

Santa Fe Trail Research Site

Santa Fe Trail Research Site
"E-Mail & Home Page"
Larry & Carolyn
St. John, Ks.
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