Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter
Volume 32, Number 2 ~*~ Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West ~*~ Autumn 2021

Notes From The Chair
     There is ALWAYS something exciting happening at Ft. Larned. Have you heard the news??? Your Fort Larned Old Guard, has obtained, for the fort, a very historical revolver. He was first a Civil War officer then legendary 10th Cavalry Officer, Fort Larned's own Captain Nicholas Nolan! The Model 1860 Colt converted to fire cartridges in 1871 is in tremendous shape for its age and is a wonderful addition to new displays. This is EXACTLY what Fort Larned Old Guard, was created for! Everyone is as excited as a kid in a candy shop!

     To come back down to earth is easy. We now need to refill our coffers! We were very pleased that we had the funds on hand to purchase the pistol. Now we have to regroup so if this type of opportunity comes around again, we are ready for it. Please consider making as generous a donation as you can, to Fort Larned Old Guard, with your upcoming dues. With this thought in mind, we are sending letters to our life members as well as those with annual renewals. I thank you already for your generosity!

     We had our fall board meeting - was it interesting! Half way through our agenda, Zoom shut down. We ended up finishing the meeting five days later. What a mess! Everyone was very kind - and flexible, but it added a disorganizational aspect we could all have lived without.

     We are planning a big day next April 30th for Mess & Muster. The day will feature informative talks about the revolver. We pray that all will be well with the world, and we can meet under normal conditions, except for perhaps masks indoors. We will see. Be careful and safe. Have wonderful Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays! Hope to see you in April out at Fort Larned.
     Janet Armstead, Chair
     The Fort Larned Old Guard, Inc.

Superintendent's Notes
By Betty Boyko

     As the temperatures slowly descend from hot summer highs to cool fall lows it's a good time to reflect on the successful summer we had, despite the ongoing pandemic. Starting with Memorial Day Weekend, and a wellattended museum exhibit opening, we were able to hold all our regular summer living history events with appropriate COVID safety measures in place.

     To cap off the summer activities, we again held our annual Candlelight Tour, although modified to keep COVID safety measures in place. This year's theme was about orders. Orders kept life on a military post orderly and were issued for all aspects of life on the post. Each scene dealt with some type of order, either a Special Order, specific to an individual or unit, or General Orders that dealt with daily operations at the post.

     The August 29th filming for the "A Taste of History" episode was a great success. Chef Staib and his crew were wonderful and engaging and three different volunteers provided them with different cooking experiences centered around life at the post. Bob Rogers demonstrated cooking for the enlisted men in the barracks kitchen, Wayne Young baked bread in the bakery's bake oven, and Jan Elder baked a delicious dessert in one of the kitchens on Officers' Row.

     Because the success of so many of the programs and events at Fort Larned are supported by volunteers and members of the Old Guard, there are many questions about the implementation of the vaccination requirements associated with Executive Order No. 14043. The Washington Volunteers- In-Parks office is working closely with the National Park Service COVID Task Force on COVID-19 vaccine guidance for volunteers. This information will be communicated widely once it is widely released. Until then, please stay safe and be healthy.

The Pawnee Fork Mail Station - Part I
By Sam Young
Fort Larned NHS Volunteer

     In the spring of 1859, the company of Jacob Hall and Judge James Porter, which had the U.S. Government contract to carry the mail between Independence, Missouri, and Santa Fe, attempted to establish a mail station on the Pawnee Fork of the Arkansas River, about 30 miles west of where Walnut Creek intersected the Santa Fe Trail. This is just east of where the town of Great Bend is located and about a mile west of where Fort Zarah was to be established in 1863.

     Hall was very familiar with the Pawnee Fork area and knew the site he wanted for the Mail Station since he had been involved, either individually or in partnership with others, in the mail contracts and delivery of mail along the Santa Fe Trail between Independence and Santa Fe since 1850. It had ample grass for hay, timber, and water.

     Hall and Porter had a very urgent need for a mail station on the Pawnee Fork as there were no mail stations or relay stations between Allison's Ranche (Walnut Fork and the Santa Fe Trail junction) and Fort Union, New Mexico---a distance of over 400 miles across the central plains home and hunting grounds of Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa Indians who were becoming more and more frustrated with the growing numbers of migrants, gold seekers, and military as well as the massive volume of commerce crossing their territory. Fortunately, the Post Office Department supported establishing additional mail stations, about every 25 miles, along the route. There had been other relay stations along the Santa Fe Trail, but when those mail contracts ended those stations had been closed.

     Unfortunately, Comanche and Kiowa Indians, who were a threat to mail and freight traffic along the Santa Fe Trail from Walnut Fort to Fort Union, had threatened violence if a mail station was established on the Pawnee Fork as it was one of their crossing sites. When construction began, these Indians carried out their threat and drove the Hall and Porter Company employees away.

     Hall knew that if a mail station was to be established on the Pawnee Fork it required his personal meeting with the postmaster general, Joseph Holt. Thus, Hall traveled to Washington to meet with Holt, who, listening to Hall's plea and justification, took immediate action. Holt wrote two letters: one to William R. Drinkard, the Acting Secretary of War, regarding the urgent need for military protection due to the Indian threat along the Santa Fe Trail especially for the mail station on the Pawnee Fork, and one to Secretary of the Interior Jacob Thompson regarding keeping the Santa Fe Trail open for the flow of commerce and mail, which included the critical need for relay stations to provide fresh horses and mules for the mail wagons.

     The mail that traveled the Trail before the war with Mexico took weeks and sometimes months to reach its destination. But following that war the number of people moving westward had multiplied significantly every year. People in the west wanted the news faster from back east, both in the form of letters and newspapers. And, since "necessity is the mother of invention," and capitalism can be a strong driving force, steps were being explored and taken to expedite the flow of mail to and from the West.

     In August of 1859 the U.S. Post Office Department reduced the contracted time from a maximum of twenty days to fifteen days for mail to travel the distance between Independence, Missouri and Santa Fe. That meant the horses had to travel that entire 400 miles between Fort Union and Walnut Creek with a few hours rest each day and only the small amount of grain that could be carried in the mail wagons and what grass was available. That change significantly increased the cost to Hall and Porter in the loss of livestock needed to pull the mail wagons. Despite the costs and challenges of the new fifteen-day requirement, the Hall and Porter Company was usually able to deliver the mail in fourteen days. The Post Office Department did grant Hall a $15,000 per year increase in its payments to cover those costs.

     After receiving Holt's letter, the acting secretary of war instructed Colonel Edwin V. Sumner who had several years of experience dealing with the plains Indians, to use his own judgement on placing soldiers at or in the vicinity of Pawnee Fork. Sumner, as commander of the military Department of the West, currently had four companies of the First Cavalry Regiment, under the command of Captain W. D. DeSaussure, temporarily stationed at old Fort Atkinson, which was located 2 miles west of where Dodge City was later founded and about 60 miles from the Pawnee Fork site. They were there during the summer months to protect that part of the Santa Fe Trail. While Sumner thought the Walnut Creek mail station site was better suited for cavalry to be placed than Pawnee Fork, he ordered DeSaussure to send one of his companies to Pawnee Fork and remain there until fall then to join DeSaussure and the other three companies when they returned to Fort Riley. DeSaussure was to also inform the Kiowa and Comanche chiefs they must not bother a mail station if it was placed there. If they did, they would be dealt with severely.

     Company H, commanded by Captain Edward W. B. Newby, departed on September 1 to proceed to Pawnee Fork and there remain for the rest of the summer. On arrival at Pawnee Fork, Newby arranged the meeting DeSaussure wanted with the Kiowa and Comanche chiefs when he and the other three companies arrived.

     Hall, knowing military protection was to be at Pawnee Fork, on September 22 sent men and materials in seven wagons from Independence to Pawnee Fork to cut hay while constructing the corrals and permanent station buildings. Hall's major concern was keeping the cavalry at Pawnee Fork until mid-November when the station should be prepared for winter. He thus sent an appeal to Sumner that the soldiers not leave before mid-November.

     DeSaussure and the three companies arrived at Pawnee Fork on September 22. Buffalo Hump, an elderly but very influential Comanche leader, and several Kiowa met with DeSaussure and agreed to not bother the mail station. Since the Kiowa leader, Little Mountain, was ill and could not attend the meeting, DeSaussure met with him at his camp near Walnut Creek, after which he proceeded to rejoin his command, that included Newby's company from Pawnee Fork, at Walnut Creek junction with the Santa Fe Trail. They then proceeded to Cow Creek where it crossed the Santa Fe Trail, just west of Lyons, Kansas, enroute to Fort Riley for the winter. The Cow Creek ranch of Asahel Beach and the Beach Valley Post Office were at this location.

     At this point in time, events rapidly occurred that led to the establishment of what was to be named Fort Larned at a site that had, over the years, been considered numerous times by the Army as a choice location to establish a military post to protect traffic on the Santa Fe Trail.

     On arrival at Cow Creek, Captain DeSaussure met Major Donaldson, from the Army Quartermaster Department, who, with his small wagon train and a paymaster with $50,000 bound to New Mexico, departed the next morning for Allison's Ranche on Walnut Creek. There they found that two drunk Kiowa sub-chiefs had threatened the lives of the two Ranche proprietors. Sensing the probability of an attack by the Kiowa, Donaldson sent an urgent request by one of his soldiers to DeSaussure for help. DeSaussure quickly responded and sent post-haste two companies of cavalry, commanded by Captain William Walker, to Allison's Ranche to avert additional trouble. Arriving around 6:00 A.M., Walker found Dickerson and his wagon train, for whom he was to provide an escort, had already departed for New Mexico. In the meantime, one of the Kiowa Indians returned, whereupon he was arrested to keep him from telling the other Kiowa of soldiers now at the Ranche. He tried to escape by horse and refused to stop after repeated warnings. He was shot and killed. Walker, suspecting a possible revenge attack, sent a dispatch to DeSaussure advising him of the situation.

     That evening, September 23rd, DeSaussure and the rest of his command arrived at the Ranche, with the mail wagon from Independence arriving shortly afterwards. On the mail wagon were Conductor Michael Smith, his brother Lawrence, and William Cole. Learning of the killing of the Indian, Conductor Smith refused to leave the Walnut Creek Station without an escort to at least Pawnee Fork. Lieutenant Elmer Otis with thirty cavalrymen provided the escort and departed with the mail wagon the morning of September 24.

     That morning DeSaussure and an accompanying detachment searched for the Kiowa but not finding them returned to Walnut Creek that night.

     On the 24th, about 1:00 P.M., the mail wagon with Otis' escort paused for lunch and to graze the horses at Pawnee Fork. All was peaceful. Conductor Smith requested the escort continue westward with them, but Otis' orders did not permit the escort to do so. The mail wagon departed and traveled about five or six miles before about fifteen Kiowa stopped them. Initially the Indians were friendly and asked, as was usual, for sugar and crackers. That gift did not satisfy them and they became belligerent to Cole. When he tried to resist them, he was shot in the back of the arm and head and his brother, driving the wagon was shot in the heart and killed. Cole grabbed the reins and turned the wagon and headed the mules back toward Pawnee Fork as the Indians fired a volley. Conductor Smith and Cole were not hit by those shots. The Indians quickly caught up with the wagon and killed Smith who was riding one of the mules. When one of the Indians got in front of the wagon and tried to stop it, Cole shot the Indian who fell between the lead mules. This caused one of the mules to spook, rear up and entangled the team. Cole jumped from the wagon and hid in the tall grass while the Indians were looking at their dead companion. The Indians looked for, but did not find Cole, and departed with the unwounded mules. Cole remained hidden until early morning when he then made his way to Pawnee Fork where he found Lieutenant Otis with the escort.

     Otis, with the escort and Cole, went to the location of the fight where they buried the Smith brothers, gathered up the letter mail which they left at the Beach Valley Post Office, and proceeded to catch up with DeSaussure and the cavalry with him. They found them camped at Lost Spring on the Santa Fe Trail, about 30 miles south of Fort Riley. Also, there was the Hall and Proctor work party enroute to Pawnee Fork.

     Mr. William Butze, foreman of Hall's work crew enroute to construct the Pawnee Fork Mail Station, that night, September 30, wrote an account of the attack on the mail wagon, the deaths of the Smiths and wounding of Cole. On October 1, he wrote from Diamond Spring, further east on the Santa Fe Trail of the unsubstantiated report of an eastbound mail party had been destroyed. He also said he and his party would accompany the next mail party heading west with an army escort of forty cavalrymen as far as Cow Creek where he would await further instructions. The escort was under orders to proceed no farther the Walnut Creek.

     William Cole's wounds had been treated by an army surgeon and he arrived in Independence on October 5th were his first-person report and Butze's letters gravely concerned Hall. He sent a telegram to the postmaster general on October 6 with the information he had received. Good news, the eastbound mail wagon with Judge Porter aboard did arrive safely, but late. They had met a train of Mexican buffalo hunters who told them the Kiowa had threatened to kill white men. With that news, the mail party turned around and accompanied the hunters westward until they met a Majors, Russell and Company eastbound wagon train which they then accompanied until they felt safe enough to proceed alone. While with the eastbound train they found the bodies of three murdered Pike's Peak gold-seekers.

     Hall's telegram and demand for the military on the Santa Fe Trail got results. His efforts were supported by Missouri Congressman Samuel H. Woodson's letter to the Secretary of War J. B. Floyd. In it he told Floyd the Indians were a threat on both sides of the Arkansas River and to the annual $1,500,000 commerce with New Mexico. Woodson requested additional soldiers as escorts and military posts be added along the Trail. He also said Allison's Ranche at Walnut Creek had corrals and living quarters for horses and soldiers that could be used for free during the winter.

     On October 5 Sumner informed Hall, in writing, that a company of cavalry was being ordered to the Pawnee Station site to remain indefinitely and supplies would be sent from Fort Riley to sustain them. Captain George N. Steuart and his Company K, First Cavalry, was ordered to establish a post at Pawnee Fork. Arriving there on October 22, 1859, selected the site that would become Fort Larned and named it "Camp on Pawnee Creek." The Army continued to garrison that site unit the Fort was closed on July 13, 1878.

     Almost simultaneously Colonel B.L.E. Bonneville, Department of New Mexico, ordered a thirty-five-man escort detail from Fort Union to guard the next mail wagon leaving Fort Union to Independence. When Bonneville received vague reports of the troubles along the Arkansas River part of the trail, he increased the number of escorts to fifty with orders to assist any wagon train that might be in trouble.

     Part II, scheduled for the Winter 2022 edition of the Fort Larned Outpost, will continue the story of the Pawnee Fork Mail Station.

References:
     Fort Larned - Guardian of the Santa Fe Trail, by Leo Oliva

     First Mail West --- Stagecoach Lines on the Santa Fe Trail, by Morris F. Tailor

     Reminiscences of Ten-Year's Experience on the Western Plains; how the United States Mails were carried before Railroads reached the Santa Fe Trail, by James Brice

     Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail, by Leo Oliva "The Mail Station and the Military Camp on Pawnee Fork, 1859-1869" Kansas Historical Quarterly, by Morris F. Taylor Numerous Kansas websites regarding such places as Cow Creek, Walnut Creek, Allison's Ranche, Lost Spring, Diamond Spring, Coon Creek, and the Beach Valley Post Office.

Roll Call: Kevin Quimby
By Ben Long, Park Ranger

     A Kansas native, Kevin comes to us through the Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program (TTAP). Kevin's time with us started back in July of this year and will extend through mid- December. Since he has done a lot of work in the labor/ construction field, he has enjoyed being able to jump right in and work on the projects assigned to him. Every building, for the exception of the Shops building and the Blockhouse, has Kevin's handiwork on it somewhere.

     Most of the work that Kevin has done on the buildings at the fort is re-glazing windows, the process of placing a putty that hardens in the window frame to keep individual window lights in place. However, most of the buildings he's worked on are those on Officers' Row. There, Kevin has not only glazed windows, but painted porches, re-shingled the roofs on wells and privies, and even fixed fencing. While Robert has been working on restoration work on the Post Commander's House, Kevin has been able to assist where he is needed there as well.

     One of the remaining projects for the Maintenance division this year is to raise the level of the floor in the Blockhouse --- which Kevin will assist with as well. By changing the level of the floor, the Blockhouse will be more handicapped accessible since right now, there's a sizable dip leading to the center of the structure. However, it will take more than just adding more dirt since the platform with the trap door will have to be raised as well.

     Kevin hopes to return to work here as a Seasonal Maintenance employee next year and continue to help make this place look that much better. We've enjoyed the time we've already had with Kevin and we hope he is able to return.

Back Again
By Brian Miller, Park Ranger

     A "new" addition has been added to the exhibits! Regimental flags from the 25 units that served at Fort Larned are proudly back on display. The flags, crafted by volunteer Margaret Linderer, were previously displayed in the old exhibits and have found a new home. Park staff recently installed the flags above the "Life at the Fort" section of the new exhibits. They are displayed in the order in which the units served. Labels have been added to enable visitors to identify each unit. Hispanic, Tribal, and Buffalo Soldier flags are found in the exhibits as well. Be sure to check them out on your next visit!

Candlelight Tour 2021
By Ben Long, Park Ranger

     For those of you who were able to make it to our Candlelight Tour this year, we hope you enjoyed yourselves and maybe even learned a thing or two! All in all, the night was a success with full tours, fantastic help from volunteers, and no incidents. Thank you to those who attended and also thank you to the many volunteers who helped make the night possible.

     For those of you who were unable to make it out, the weather was a bit warm but as the night went on, we received a lovely light show from distant lightning.

     The theme this year had to do with orders of all sorts telling who had to do what and where and when they had to do it. In highlighting Orders, we were able to show how soldiers, and even some officers, weren't in control of their own lives. Whether it was ordering them where

Filming The Bakery Video
By Ben Long, Park Ranger

     As you may have recently seen on our social media, we have produced another video. Through endof- year funds (the fiscal year ending September 30) and grants, we were able to upgrade our AV equipment to be able to present the story of Fort Larned in a higher quality. This most recent video was the first one to use the new equipment and through this filming, we were able to experience the learning curve that comes with new equipment.

     This most recent video is part of a larger series where we highlight a different building or room to help show our virtual visitors, as well as future visitors, what these rooms look like and what they were used for. I knew I wanted to highlight the Bakery, as it is an essential part of any frontier post. But what story should we tell through the screen to highlight, in an entertaining way, what happened in the Bakery? Sure, we could film the room as it is today or even put a couple living historians in the room performing various duties. But who wants to watch five minutes of that? That's when I remembered a story George had told me where a rabid wolf tried to get into the Bakery and the baker ended up shooting the wolf through the door! There was one issue though: that happened during the Civil War, when the Bakery was a dugout. Thankfully, the Santa Fe Trail Center has a few outbuildings that give the perfect backdrop and could give the illusion that you're inside a dugout bakery. Through filming shots in the sod house, as well as the trapper cabin, and using a bit of "Hollywood magic", we were able to transport the viewer to over 150 years ago into the dugout bakery.

     But we also wanted to highlight the current bakery. Since each company was required to volunteer one private to work in the bakery, I figured highlighting the Buffalo Soldiers and some of their struggles (especially with Company "C" of the 3rd US Infantry) while they were stationed here. Through high schoolers and other local volunteers, we were able to make the Bakery come to life and hopefully help explain the purpose of the various items we have placed in that room. placed in that room.

     If you have seen the video, we hope you enjoyed it! And if you haven't seen the video, you can find it on our Facebook or if you go to our website (ww.nps.gov/fols) and click on the Menu tab, then hover over the Learn About the Parhotos and Multimedia Multimedia Presentations Minute In It Video Series (on the bottom of the Multimedia Presentations page).

Open Outdoors For Kids Grant
By Brian Miller, Park Ranger

     Fort Larned National Historic Site recently received the news that we have once again been awarded grant funds from the National Park Foundation! As with previous years, the Open OutDoors for Kids Grant funds will be used to reimburse school's transportation cost. Because grant funds remain highly sought after, the fort requested and received additional funding this year, totaling $15,000. This year's field trips will focus on the diverse cultures who interacted at the fort. Most field trips will consist of three components: a ranger or teacher led classroom-based pre-site program, an in-person field trip, and a teacher led post-site program. We've had a few schools this fall and look forward to a busy Spring! Distance learning programs continue to grow in demand. Schools from California, Florida, Iowa, and Minnesota have all requested programs this fall. A big thank you to Fort Larned Old Guard, for providing the iPad and data plan which enables us to reach schools all over the U.S.!

Maintenance Matters
August 2021
By William Chapman, Facility Manager

     Greetings once again from the Maintenance team. As the candlelight tour approached, a contractor was finishing a masonry tuck-pointing project on the hospital/ barracks building. This work included cleaning the exterior walls with a mild cleaner that kills biological growth since we had mold and moss growing on the north side of the structure. This growth was encouraged by the excessive moisture that accumulates during rain and snow weather events. They also removed 20% of the mortar that was deteriorated and installed new mortar.

     Park staff continued with ongoing painting and wood repairs to the buildings, glazing windows and keeping the place looking good.

     The Visitor Center chiller replacement contract was awarded but with the delays the country is experiencing in goods shipment, this project will not be completed until December --- just in time to use the air conditioner at full bore.

     We also had a small paint contract to provide a wood preservative service on the lean-to of the Old Commissary and Post Adjutant building. They also painted the well houses behind the Visitor Center and Barracks.

     We got our Traditional Trade Apprentice Program (TTAP) apprentice on board in late July. Kevin Quimby has been able to replace roofs on the North Officers' Quarters well house and the privies behind Officers' Row. He has also glazed windows throughout the park and painted parts of the South Officers' Quarters.

     As noted in the last Outpost "We will be moving forward on the replacement of the concrete sidewalk approach to the bridge. We had a little delay while going through a compliance process to consider the impact the work has on environmental factors and cultural factors. These are based in National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Complying with both laws govern many of the actions that we do within the park. In fact, the NHPA is the basis for the Fort's establishment as a National Park Service site, to protect a nationally registered listed historic structure. So, with concurrence of the described work to replace this section of sidewalk we will be proceeding with project review and contracting with replacement planned for after the Labor Day weekend. "

     While we put this work out for proposal, we were flabbergasted that the lowest priced proposal was 3 time the government estimate. This work will be moved to FY 22 and be performed by park staff.

     We awarded the contract to construct two more accessible walkways with the decomposed granite material (KAFKA) to the south officers' quarters (HS-7). Aztec Contracting, who did the similar work in 2019 at the park, was awarded the work.

     We have been keeping up with operational maintenance by cleaning buildings and restrooms, maintaining the cultural landscape with mowing and weed trimming. The rest of the staff are doing well and adjusting to the mosquitoes and the heat of summer. They have all expressed happiness to see so many more visitors as compared to last years'. I think it made them feel more valued when they see that the public enjoyed their work.

     Well, I have taken up too much of your time by now, but I have enjoyed letting you all know of the ongoing work of a dedicated maintenance staff in preserving our fort. Until next time, be good, be safe and enjoy.

The Enlisted Men of Company C, 3rd Infantry
A Series by Celeste Dixon, Park Ranger
Part XIV --- Julius Klinegunther

     Our next soldier's time at Fort Larned was completely uneventful. Julius Klinegunther enlisted in the Army on March 25, 1867 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

     Klinegunther started the year off on company duty for all of January. February also found him on company duty until the 11th, when he was sent on extra duty to the Post Quartermaster Department as a mechanic. He remained on extra duty as a mechanic through the end of October.

     During his time with the Quartermaster Department, he was out sick twice. The first time he reported to sick call on June 22nd with an inflammation of the bladder, which kept him in the Post Hospital for the rest of the month. On July 9th he was reported as sick in the hospital, although the ailment is not listed.

     By November 1st, Klinegunther was back on company duty where he remained for the rest of the year.

     Klinegunther's duty as a mechanic might be confusing to some people today since our understanding of a mechanic is someone who works on cars. There obviously weren't any cars to work on at Fort Larned in the 1860's so what were his duties in this capacity? At this time a mechanic was someone who worked with tools to repair things, which explains why the term was used for people who worked on automobiles when they first made their appearance in the early 1900's.

Fort Larned in the News
The Junction City Weekly Union, 15 August 1868

     Major E. W. Wynkoop writes to the State Journal, that "while a party of ladies and gentlemen of the post were sitting on the portico in front of my quarters, engaged in singing and playing, a mad wolf dashed among us, attacking Lieut. Thompson, of the Third United States Infantry, tearing his limbs in a frightful manner. He then left, pursued by my scout, Mr, James Morrison, and myself, after procuring weapons. He soon after attacked the sentinel at the guard-house, who fired at him, but with no effect. From there he proceeded to the hospital, made an attack upon a soldier, nearly tearing off his right arm and biting off one of his fingers. He afterwards bit a colored soldier of the Tenth Cavalry, and entered the quarters of a laundress while she was in bed, biting through the bed-clothing, but not injuring her. He then made for the sentinel at the haystack, who fortunately shot him dead. There are now, besides Lieut. Thompson, three persons here bitten by this rabid wolf. What .the result will be, God only knows." This at Fort Larned, a few days ago.

Membership Reminder
     Annual memberships in the Fort Larned Old Guard expire on December 31. If you have not renewed for 2021, please send dues to membership chair Linda Peters, 1035 S Bridge St, Lakin KS 67860. Additional donations are always welcome to assist with projects of the Old Guard. Thank you so much for all your support!!!

Fort Larned Old Guard Contact Information
     The officers, members of the board of directors, dues information and email's are listed on this page of Information. Please feel free to contact any of us.

Schedule of Annual Events
     True to life stories of the Indian Wars along the Santa Fe Trail, brought to life by some of the greatest volunteers in the West. . . ! Visit the most complete Indian fort surviving from the days when Custer and Buffalo Bill Cody rode through this part of the West on their missions. Original restored buildings to that time period, a visitor center, Park Rangers will guide you through this adventure of the Old West.

     Memorial Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday & Monday) largest living history event in western Kansas - experience a working frontier fort.

     Labor Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday, & Monday) Re-enactors bring Fort Larned back to life for the holiday weekend.

     Candlelight Tour (2nd Saturday of October) Entertaining evening tours with vignettes from the fort's history.

     Christmas Open House (2nd Saturday of December) Old-fashioned Yuletide celebration with hot apple cider, cookies and Christmas carols.

     Fort Larned National Historic Site is a unit of the U.S. National Park Service located six miles west of Larned, Kansas on Kansas Highway 156. Open 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p. m. daily, the park's Visitor Center/Museum and all furnished buildings are admission free. They also have a great book store! Information on Fort Larned may be found at {www.National Park Service.gov/fols}, by calling 620-285-6911, or by sending email to {fols_superintendent@National Park Service.gov}.




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