Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West Fort Larned Old Guard Newsletter
Volume 32, Number 3 Best Preserved Frontier Fort in the West Winter 2022

Notes From The Chair
     What a beautiful day we had for Mess & Muster '22. The day was filled with great programs, informative lectures and heartthumping demonstrations!

     The evening banquet was delicious with the end product of the day being a new, exciting board. Here is your new board:
     Chair: Kristin Keith
     Vice Chair: Tim Zwink
     Secretary: Janet Armstead
     Treasurer: Greg VanCoevern
          Rex Abrahams
          Tom Giessel
          Ken Weidner
          Kathy Foster
          Beccy Tanner

     Linda Peters will remain as Membership Chair and Leo Oliva is the Village Site Manager, both as non-voting members.

     I am thankful to all of you, for the support you have given me over the last few, Covid-filled, difficult years. My thanks to the board for their support, especially Leo for all the needed advice and guidance. I have one year left before I term limit out during which I will serve as secretary. If you LOVE Ft. Larned - please consider serving on the board. Also - ask your friends and neighbors to join Fort Larned Old Guard to support this one-of-a-kind historical site.

     We finished the day "in the black" only due to the generosity and kindness of our guest author/lecturer, Dr. John Langellier.

     Please be aware that in spite of the cost of living going up and up, our Fort Larned Old Guard dues have remained the same for many years. We have reached the point that in order to keep functioning, we will have to make a change. We will do our best to keep the dues at a level that all can still be involved.

     Please welcome our incoming chair, Kristin Keith! You will find her bio and picture below.
          Happy Trails!

Kristin Keith the New Chair
     It's been an honor to serve Fort Larned Old Guard on the Board of Directors the last several years and I am excited to begin my term as your new Chairperson. I hope to provide the same dedicated leadership modeled by our previous Chairperson, Janet Armstead. On behalf of all Fort Larned Old Guard members, I would like to sincerely thank you, Janet, for all of your hard work!

     I am a lifelong resident of Larned, Kansas living in one of Pawnee county's historic homes but I spend much of my time in my "second home", the quarters of Captain Nicholas Nolan and his wife Annie at Fort Larned, volunteering the last five years portraying Annie Nolan and others during living history special events. I also enjoy sharing my passion for Fort Larned's history by assisting with school group tours during the year. I attended Wichita State University and Southwestern College in Winfield, earning a degree in English in 1995. I taught at Larned High School, Cowley County Community College and Barton County Community College.

     In 2003, I switched gears and started my own antique business and participate in antique shows, online sales and estate sale services.

     Currently, I also serve on the Board of Directors of the Fort Larned Historical Society and serve as Chairperson of Larned's Annual Antique Show. I've been married for 30 years to my high school sweetheart, Joel Keith. We have three children: Joelle Keith (mom to Ridge age 5), Nurse Practitioner; Brady Keith (Lindsey), teacher/ football coach and Kolby Keith (Dava), coowner/ operator of Wing Chaser Outdoors.

     Looking forward to serving Fort Larned Old Guard and promoting our national treasure, Fort Larned! Please feel free to contact me at any time with questions or concerns.
     Kristin Keith

Kevin-Eads New Superintendent
     OMAHA, Neb. --- Kevin Eads has been selected as the new superintendent of Fort Larned National Historic Site in Kansas. Eads is currently the Superintendent at Pea Ridge National Military Park in Arkansas.

     He will assume his new role later this summer.

     Fort Larned OUTPOST is the official publication of the Fort Larned Old Guard, Inc., a nonprofit, 501 (c)(3), corporation chartered in the State of Kansas. It is also the newsletter of Fort Larned National Historic Site. The mission of Fort Larned Old Guard is "to assist Fort Larned National Historic Site in restoring, preserving, developing, and interpreting the site's cultural, historical, and natural resources for the benefit of the public."

     Letters and articles are welcome, and they become the property of OUTPOST and may be edited or abridged at the editors' discretion. All rights reserved.

     Membership in the Fort Larned Old Guard is open to all individuals, families, businesses, and institutions.
     Classes of annual membership for individuals and families are
     Private ($15-$24),
     Corporal ($25-$49)
     Sergeant ($50-$74)
     Lieutenant ($75-$99),
     Captain ($100-$149). Nonprofit organizations join as Camp
     Follower ($30 and above) and businesses may join annually as
     Sutler ($40 and above). Life membership is available as Career
     Officer ($300 in one payment or 3 annual installments of $100). Membership fees should be sent to Linda Peters, 1035 S Bridge St, Lakin KS 67860. Annual memberships are for the calendar year and expire on December 31. Other donations are always welcome.

Fort Larned Old Guard Board Members:
     Chair: Kristin Keith, 527 W 4th St., Larned KS 67550, 620-804-1170, {}
     Vice-Chair: Tim Zwink, {}
     Secretary: Janet Armstead, 1806 2nd St., Wamego KS. 66547, 785-458-9222, {}
     Treasurer: Greg VanCoevern, 4773 Wasserman Way, Salina KS 67401, 785-826-6816, {}

     Tom Giessel {}
     Kathleen Foster {}
     Ken Weidner {}
     Rex Abrahams, 1708 27th Ave, Canton KS 67428, 316-393-7890 {}
     Beccy Tanner {}
Web Master:
     Larry Mix {}

Fort Larned NHS:
     Superintendent: Kevin Eads, 1767 K- 156 Hwy, Larned KS 67550, 620-285-6911,
     Fort Larned Editor: Ben Long, 1767 K-156 Hwy, Larned KS 67550, 620-285-6911 {}

     "Kevin is a proven leader with strong personal skills and work ethic," Deputy Regional Director Wendy Ross said. "His ability to solve problems collaboratively and guide complex projects to completion will serve the park well. His extensive and diverse park experience makes him an excellent choice to manage this park."

     "I am ecstatic, yet humbled, to have the opportunity to serve as the new superintendent of Fort Larned National Historic Site," said Eads. "It is an amazing park with multiple layers of history, cultural diversity, and significance, and it is located in a beautiful part of the county. I look forward to working with the staff, tribal members, volunteers, partners, and the local community in the preservation and interpretation of this remarkable site."

     Eads, a 31-year veteran of the National Park Service, holds a B.S. in Wildlife Biology from Northeastern State University in Oklahoma and an M.S. in Forest Resources from the University of Arkansas, Monticello.

     He began his career at George Washington Carver National Monument as a student trainee ranger in resource management and interpretation. He has served as an interpretative park ranger at George Washington's Birthplace National Monument, as the Resource Manager at Arkansas Post National Memorial and the Chief of Resource Management at Pea Ridge National Military Park.

     Eads has extensive experience in park management including the program areas of administration, personnel, budget, resource management, maintenance, interpretation, and law enforcement. He has expertise in the oversight, management, development and implementation of significant plans, guiding documents, and projects that have set the direction of the parks where he has worked. Eads and his wife LaDena are looking forward to moving closer to his wife's family, who have lived in the general area for generations. They have been married for 30 years and have two son's Chad and Hunter. Eads enjoys spending time with his family, fishing, gardening, farming, and hunting.
     (Official news release from Omaha
     Regional Office, National Park Service

Mess & Mess & Muster - 2022
     By Ben Long, Park Ranger April 30, 2022 marked the first in-person Mess & Muster that I have witnessed since I started here in July 2019. To say that it was amazing to see so many folks that are so passionate about Fort Larned NHS and our mission would be an understatement. Though we didn't have many volunteers and staff providing living history demonstrations, we certainly had quite the range. From Officer's wives and servants, to 3rd Infantry soldiers, to Buffalo Soldiers, we had it all. The event rightfully started off with a "bang!" at our Howitzer Firing Demonstration. There, volunteers and visitors alike were able to learn about the use of the 12- Pounder Mountain Howitzer on the Great Plains. That demonstration alone saw about 75 people and with no missing appendages or misfires, I'd say it was a success!

     Ready for retreat ceremony (photo by Rex Abrahams)

     Inspection before retreat (photo by Rex Abrahams)

     Preparing for firing demonstation (photo by Rex Abrahams)

     A successful firing demonstration (photo by Carl Brenner)

     Then started the afternoon's programs which included talks from Kristin Keith, George Elmore, Leo Oliva, and a music demonstration by Prairie Larkspur. John Langellier, the evening's speaker, was also able to have a book signing for his book "Fighting for Uncle Sam: Buffalo Soldiers in the Frontier Army."

     The evening's speaker, John Langellier presenting (photo by Ben Long)

     George Elmore presenting on the Nolan pistol (photo by Ben Long)

     The events at the fort ended with another "bang!" By setting the howitzer off as a salute before the flag was lowered for the day. A great addition to the day's events and especially the retreat ceremony, was Janet Armstead's wonderful bugle playing. Hearing someone play the bugle at a place like Fort Larned adds so much to the ambiance of the fort.

     Due to COVID restrictions when the planning for the event was happening, the evening dinner and program was held at the Larned Community Center. While the dinner was great, I could tell that the connections and re-connections being made were even better! After a few awards were so rightfully given, Carl Brenner, Detailed Superintendent, and Janet Armstead on behalf of the Old Guard signed the proper paperwork transferring ownership of the Nolan revolver to Fort Larned National Historic Site. Here, I echo Carl's sincerest gratitude to all of you who have made it possible for us to have such an influential and amazing artifact in our possession. I cannot wait to see it on display and I hope you're equally excited as well! The evening ended with a wonderful talk by John Langellier on the history of the Buffalo Soldiers, and more specifically, Nicholas Merritt Nolan. To hear Nolan's story from beginning to end in such a wonderful way as it was given was a unique experience and one I will not soon forget.

Shining up the brass for the retreat ceremony (Ben Long)

     Again, thank you all for everything you do for Fort Larned --- I eagerly look forward to what other amazing things will come out of our relationship. As we work toward displaying the Nolan revolver, I encourage all of you to see this wonderful piece on display once it is there. We hope for another wonderful year and I hope to see you all again before next year's Mess & Muster.

John Langellier Signed Book For Sale
     John Langellier, featured Mess & Muster speaker, autographed his book, Fighting for Uncle Sam: Buffalo Soldiers in the Frontier Army, at the Fort. Several copies remain which he signed, and these are for sale. The list price is $40, and Fort Larned Old Guard is selling these for $35 postpaid as long as the supply lasts. Fort Larned Old Guard has no investment in these books, and the entire $35 will be used to help fund the purchase of Captain Nicolas Nolan's revolver which the Old Guard recently acquired for the Fort. To order a copy, please contact Leo Oliva, {} or 785-476-5033.

Fort Larned's Escort wagon & Hand Carts
By Sam Young, Fort Larned NHS Volunteer

     Fort Larned's Escort wagon is the result of significant evolution of wagons owned and used by the U.S. Army's Quartermaster (QM) Department from the Revolutionary War until 1876 when these wagons were designed and approved for procurement. Experience led the QMs, early in the nineteenth century, to pursue standardization and interchangeable parts for their wagons to make it easier and cheaper to maintain and repair them. The result was the Model 1838 four-mule wagon which was used well into the Civil War and for a while after. By then, the Army had developed and procured an excellent six-mule wagon based on years of experience on the plains, deserts, and mountains west of the Mississippi. The six-mule wagon was the "work-horse" of the Army QM Department during the Civil War and the following forty years.

     In addition to the larger Army posts like Forts Leavenworth, Riley, Sill and Sam Houston, the Army established many smaller forts such as forts Larned, Wallace, and Concho. Work and transportation requirements in and around the smaller posts showed the need for two and four-mule or horsedrawn wagons. There were very few of the old Model 1838 wagons remaining. So, in 1876 the QM brought together a board of officers with decades of experience with Army transportation requirements that sought and considered many lessons-learned in moving material before, during, and after the Civil War. The result was the Model 1876 two and four-mule or -horse Escort wagons.

     Look at Fort Larned's Escort wagon. The distinctive blue on the wagon's exterior is standard as is the red trim on the exterior and the inside of the wagon box. A review of the history of Army wagons reveals other colors on other types of wagons. Also, note the wheel hubs. They are the patented Archibald iron hubs that were better suited to the different climates than the standard wooden hubs. Many of these wagons were built by the Kansas Manufacturing Company in Leavenworth, Kansas.

     Looking at pictures of or seeing existing Escort wagons, you might note exceptions to the standard design. That is because the user might, for example, change the setup for the bows and canvas, modify the seats or brakes, or whatever he thought might work better. That was also standard practice throughout the Army---sometimes caused by lack of repair materials.

     Hauling all kinds of supplies, equipment, and household baggage to and from close forts like Dodge, Harker, and Hays with four horses or mules was common. Also common were two mules or horses pulling the wagons used by Fort Larned soldiers and civilian employees to carry water tanks or barrels, firewood, and ice that had been cut from the Pawnee Fork to the mess halls and officers' quarters. But what if it was taking rations from the Commissary to the mess halls? Larger loads were probably carried by the two mule or horse wagons. Smaller loads probably were not a good use of the two-mule or -horse wagons when a hand cart would work just as well. Fort Larned NHS has two of these handcarts---an original and a replica. As a small Army post, Fort Larned probably had two handcarts, one in the Commissary storehouse and the other in the Quartermaster storehouse. These carts would have been ideal for moving flour and yeast to the bakery and baked bread to the mess halls. It could have been used to take medical supplies to the Post Hospital. As the living historian/saddler at Fort Larned, I frequently used the replica cart moving tentage, artillery harness, saddles and bridles to and from the Saddler Shop for repair. It made my job easier and was historically correct.

     There might have been two other carts, one in the cavalry stables and one at the QM stables, to haul and dump manure and soiled straw.

     At this point, let's add a few words about the four- and six-mule wagons at Fort Larned in 1867. If you look at the Fort Larned pamphlet "a day in 1867," you will see, near the Sutler's store, a four-horse (maybe mules but they look like horses) wagon escorted by a detachment of cavalrymen. That would have been the 1838 model four-mule wagon. There is a loaded fourmule wagon by the side door of the QM storehouse. There is also a two-mule wagon behind the officers' quarters modified as a water wagon. By the Quartermaster storehouse and along the Santa Fe Trail are many wagons pulled by oxen. These are contracted freight wagons.

     Now, look at the Quartermaster wagon yard. These are the six-mule wagons. They belong to the U.S. Army QM Department. Their mission is to support resupply requirements of military units operating away from military posts against Indians and hauling heavier supply loads to and from other forts. Fort Larned's missions included protecting these wagons when away from the fort and while at the fort.
     The Great Blue Army Wagon, by Thomas Lindmier, The Carriage Museum of America, 2009

Lawrence Hart, 1933-2022
By Leo Oliva

     Cheyenne Chief Lawrence Hart was a friend of Fort Larned and the Old Guard, and we are pleased to honor his life and career. He gave programs for us. He and his son-in-law, Gordon Yellowman, performed a blessing ceremony for the Cheyenne and Oglala Lakota village site, a sacred site now owned and preserved by the Old Guard. Chief Hart was commissioned a Colonel in the Old Guard several years ago. His granddaughter is featured in the new exhibits at Fort Larned, featured as the hologram of a young Cheyenne woman in a lodge.

     Chief Hart was a fountain of knowledge about the Cheyenne people, their language, culture, and history. His ancestors were at the Sand Creek Massacre (1864) and Washita (1869). Lawrence was involved in getting those places designated National Historic Sites. He founded the Cheyenne Cultural Center at Clinton OK to preserve the culture and language of his people. The following information is from his obituary.

     Lawrence Homer Hart was born at home on the banks of Quartermaster Creek north of Hammon OK to Jennie Howling Water and Homer Hart on February 24, 1933. He was delivered by his grandmother Cornstalk--- Anna Reynolds---who was a midwife and delivered numerous Cheyenne babies. His grandfather John Peak Heart (later Hart) was a Cheyenne Sundance Priest, Native American Church leader, and Cheyenne Chief.

     Lawrence was raised by Cornstalk and John Hart, speaking only Cheyenne the first years of his life. He attended Bethel College in North Newton, Kansas where he met Betty Bartel and the two were married in 1957. Before that, in 1955, Lawrence left Bethel to realize his dream of flying jet fighter planes in the Navy and Marines. First Lieutenant Lawrence Hart was the first American Indian to become a U.S. military jet pilot and instructor. He was a commissioned Marine but flew his wartime missions off a U.S. Navy Aircraft carrier. He was one MIG kill short of qualifying as an ACE when a truce with North Korea was declared.

     While in the Marine Corps, he was selected to appear on the then popular "What's My Line?" television show. He signed in using his Cheyenne name Black Beaver and his occupation was a jet fighter pilot. His appearance can be viewed at What's My Line - Chief Lawrence Hart - YouTube.

     His grandfather John Peak Hart selected Lawrence to take his place as a Cheyenne Chief. When the initiation was scheduled to occur in Hammon, Oklahoma, Lawrence's commanding officer authorized him to fly to Clinton-Sherman so he could be in attendance. Following the ceremony, Lawrence told the people he would fly over the location. Numerous descendants of those in attendance spoke of the time they waived their tea towels in the sky when Lawrence conducted the flyover. The Air Force did a flyover for his funeral service, and those attending waved tea towels in remembrance of Lawrence.

     After he became a Cheyenne Chief, Lawrence left military service and attended Southwestern Oklahoma State University before returning to Bethel to graduate in 1961 with a degree in history. Lawrence then attended the Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary in Elkhart, Indiana and became an ordained Mennonite pastor. Lawrence and Betty moved to Clinton in 1963 where he served as pastor to the Koinonia Mennonite Church until October 2021.

     Throughout his career, Lawrence served on numerous local, state, and national Indian Education boards and Committees. He also served on several Mennonite Committees as well as a board member to his alma mater Bethel College. In 1992 he was selected by the U.S. Senate as a Delegate to the White House Conference on Indian Education. That same year he was named "Indian Elder of the Year" by the National Indian Education Association. Lawrence served as a board member of the Clinton Public Schools as well as leadership positions from 1993 to 1998. He was the first Native American elected to serve in that position.

     He received many awards, including "Distinguished Citizen Award" by the Oklahoma Heritage Association in 1993. In 1995 he was the recipient of the "Distinguished Service Award" from Bethel College. In 1997, the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes recognized him as a "Distinguished Honorary Citizen" for Cheyenne language preservation. In September 1996, Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt appointed Chief Hart to the Review Committee of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990. In 2007, his biography, Searching for Sacred Ground: The Journey of Chief Lawrence Hart, Mennonite, written by Raylene Hinz-Penner, was published.

     Memorials may be made to the Cheyenne Cultural Center which was founded by Lawrence Hart. Send donations for the organization to Hart's son-in-law, Gordon Yellowman, 513 Lynn Dr, El Reno OK 73036.

2021-2022 School Group Season
By Brian Miller, Park Ranger

     School group season is in full swing! Thanks to the assistance of Fort Larned Old Guard, Fort Larned once again received funds from the National Park Foundation's Open OutDoors grant to help reimburse schools for their transportation funds. By the end of May, 33 different schools will have visited the site in person. While on site, students explore the roles of Buffalo Soldiers, Plains Indians, Hispanic traders, European American soldiers, and women at Fort Larned. A big thank you goes to Kristin Keith for her assistance with nearly every group! A thank Blacksmith Pete Bethke providing a demonstration you as well to Greg VanCoevern for coordinating the grant payments to the school districts!

     Distance learning programs continue to be popular as well! The iPad and data plan generously provided by Fort Larned Old Guard has enabled us to reach schools from Arizona, California, Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, and New Hampshire this year. All total, including both in-person and distance learning programs, Fort Larned will reach just under 2,000 students this school year!

Fort Larned Roll Call
New & Returning Faces at Fort Larned NHS
By Ben Long, Park Ranger
Tyler Blind

     Some of you may look at Tyler's name and think to yourself "That name looks familiar." You'd be right! Tyler, a native of Fort Madison, Iowa, comes to us again after adventuring about for a couple of years. Back in the 2019 season, Tyler was brought on to help with the preparations for the new museum exhibits. Though his main project time was spent in the Visitor Center preparing our exhibit area for the new addition, he also spent time mowing and working on various other projects.

     During the fateful year of 2020, Tyler was at a small park in upstate western New York --- Women's Rights National Historical Park. There, he fulfilled many general maintenance needs. The year 2021 brought bigger and better things for Tyler when he worked at Cuyahoga Valley National Park. While at Cuyahoga Valley, he was part of a small crew that ended up painting more structures than was anticipated by the park.

     Though Fort Larned NHS isn't as big of a park as Cuyahoga Valley, there is still plenty of work to be done. Tyler's main task this year is repairing plaster, repainting, re-staining, and redoing windows in the South Junior Officer's Quarters. Every room in that building will be worked on except for the kitchens, so if you do come to the park and see some closed doors where there usually aren't any, just know that there is some great restoration work going on in there. Though everything will still be the same colors, these rooms will look a lot more cared for by the time Tyler and those helping him are finished.

     When asked why he wanted to return, Tyler said it was the people and the place that encouraged him to come back. Though it is a slightly new experience for him, he knows the people here and he knows the place quite well, making him a great person to help care for these beautiful structures. We are glad Tyler is back and we can't wait to see how great these places will look when he's done with them!

Abigail Breckner
Next to a window she
recently finished
working on

     Abigail comes to us most recently from St. Louis, though she has been a lifelong resident of the Midwest. As the most recent participant in the Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program at Fort Larned, Abigail works alongside our Maintenance division primarily assisting in rehabilitation projects around the park.

     With an undergraduate degree in Architecture, Abigail has a love for buildings, though from working on various projects, she quickly realized that she doesn't enjoy a blank slate as much as she likes buildings that are already there. In the field of architecture, creating a project from the ground up requires more time to be spent behind a desk --- this isn't where Abigail likes to be. Rather than creating or having a vision for what could be, a building that is already standing and needs preservation is more Abigail's speed, making Fort Larned the perfect place for her to get started in the preservation field. In my interview with Abigail, one idea kept coming up: that of preservation. As mentioned above, Abigail enjoys the idea of preserving history through architecture. In her mind, each building has a story to tell and in addition to preserving those which have already been marked as historic structures, we need to preserve those buildings that we may not look at as historic in order to give them a chance to tell their story down the road. Though we may not look at 1970's or 1980's architecture and think it needs preservation, its our job to make sure those structures are preserved now, so that generations down the line might be able to enjoy what they have to offer. Each structure has a story to tell for Abigail, and she genuinely enjoys getting to know that story and collaborating with others to make sure that story is accurately portrayed for years to come.

     Though we only have Abigail here until she goes to Graduate School in August, we are looking forward to the time we do have with her and we are looking forward to the work she will be able to get done while she's here. Through mainly shadowing Robert while she's here, they hope to get work done on repairing and replacing windows, parts of some of the roofs, as well as repairing one of the forges in the Blacksmith Shop. We look forward to the rest of the time we have with Abigail and we hope she enjoys her time at the best preserved fort on the Santa Fe Trail!

Maintenance Matters
By William Chapman, Facility Manager

     Greeting readers, once again I take a moment and update you with the ongoings of the maintenance operations of the fort. We are working on a cyclic project, a repair project and corrective maintenance projects since last we spoke. With Mike Seymour's assistance we moved some furnishings from the North West Lieutenant's room of the South Junior Officers' Quarters building in mid-April to begin wall, ceiling, and window repairs (Cyclic Project). Tyler Blind, our seasonal carpenter, will be working on this project. But with this building housing so much of the park collections items on display, it will be a slower process. We will be doing one room at a time. This will impact available use of the structure throughout the year.

     The Historic Preservation Training Center (HTPC) will once again be on site. In the past HPTC assisted the fort with the Old Commissary structural repair, window and masonry project as well as providing a training program which Robert Sellers attended. They will be working with us to correct the entablature of the porches of the Commanding Officer's Quarters.

     Shawn and Kenny are in the shop milling new posts and rails to repair the fence damage from December wind event, though we were delayed with acquiring material like so many others at this time.

     Robert is working with Abigail, our Traditional Trade Apprentice Program (TTAP) intern, to complete the chimney from last year's TTAP work in November. The two of them will also be working on the reconstructed forge in the blacksmith shop along with painting and other preservation work throughout the fort.

     Mat has been busy with his custodial duties as Ranger Brain and has informed the park that we have already had two thousand school kids this year. There has been a lot of cleaning that has been done to accommodate these and our regular visitors. Mat has also been having fun keeping up with the high winds we've had this late Winter and Spring. He been chasing the same dirt from building to building. It reminds me of many cartoons and comic strips that address this frustration with comic relief.

     Preservation Term: (1.) Built-up beam --- A wood framing member composed of two or more individual pieces, such as box beam, compound beam, flitch plate.

     The project on the Commanding Officer's Quarters addresses issues with this structural element --- the box beams, the decorative, and visual beam of these porches. It is the outer painted wood element making up the visible entablature of the porches. But under or behind this box beam is yet another built-up beam. A beam of two individual 2x8 framing lumber is fastened together to make the built-up beam. Though normally not visible to public, this beam spans the distance from column to column and supports the roof and serves as the roof framing member fastening (attachment) points to prevent wind lift.     
     (1.) Bucher Dictionary of Building Preservation (Preservation Press 1996)

Quilts of the Santa Fe TrailL
Bicentennial Exhibit

     Quilts of the Santa Fe Trail, sponsored by the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Santa Fe Trail Center west of Larned, will be on exhibit at the Trail Center, May 27-September 9, 2022. This special project commemorates the bicentennial of the opening of the Santa Fe Trail 1821-1822, and the history of the Trail until it closed in 1880.

     The exhibit is located in the auditorium of the Trail Center. The local DAR chapter pieced and quilted one of these quilts which is on view in the lobby of the Trail Center. Whenever you travel to Fort Larned, be sure to include a stop at the Trail Center to see this special exhibit and the many other Santa Fe Trail exhibits there.

Fort Larned in the News
Santa Fe Weekly Post, May 20, 1865
Attack on Trains:

     The last mail from the East brought news of an attack upon the trains of Mr. Kitchen and Mr. Sena, both of San Miguel, made by the Indians between Cow Creek and Walnut Creek, about fifty miles cast of Fort Larned. Four men are reported killed in the attack upon Mr. Kitchen's train and three in that upon Mr. Sena's. The former was coming in this direction loaded with corn for the government and the latter was going east for freight. It is to be regretted that sufficient escorts have not been furnished on the eastern part of the road to prevent these attacks.

Membership Reminder
     Annual memberships in the Fort Larned Old Guard expire on December 31. If you have not renewed for 2022, please send dues to membership chair Linda Peters, 1035 S Bridge St, Lakin KS 67860. Additional donations are always welcome to assist with projects of the Old Guard. Thank you so much for all your support!!!

Fort Larned Old Guard Contact Information
     The officers, members of the board of directors, dues information and email's are listed on this page of Information. Please feel free to contact any of us.

Schedule of Annual Events
     True to life stories of the Indian Wars along the Santa Fe Trail, brought to life by some of the greatest volunteers in the West. . . ! Visit the most complete Indian fort surviving from the days when Custer and Buffalo Bill Cody rode through this part of the West on their missions. Original restored buildings to that time period, a visitor center, Park Rangers will guide you through this adventure of the Old West.

     Memorial Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday & Monday) largest living history event in western Kansas - experience a working frontier fort.

     Labor Day Weekend (Saturday, Sunday, & Monday) Re-enactors bring Fort Larned back to life for the holiday weekend.

     Candlelight Tour (2nd Saturday of October) Entertaining evening tours with vignettes from the fort's history.

     Christmas Open House (2nd Saturday of December) Old-fashioned Yuletide celebration with hot apple cider, cookies and Christmas carols.

     Fort Larned National Historic Site is a unit of the U.S. National Park Service located six miles west of Larned, Kansas on Kansas Highway 156. Open 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p. m. daily, the park's Visitor Center/Museum and all furnished buildings are admission free. They also have a great book store! Information on Fort Larned may be found at {www.National Park}, by calling 620-285-6911, or by sending email to {fols_superintendent@National Park}.

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