Fort Hays/Fort Dodge Road

  1. David K Strate, Sentinel to the Cimarron: The Frontier Experience of Fort Dodge, Kansas (Dodge City: Cultural Heritage and Arts Center, 1970), 24.

  2. Morris F. Taylor, First Mail West: Stagecoach Lines of the Santa Fe Trail Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 115, 121, 123.

  3. Leo E. Oliva, Fort Hays, Frontier Army Post, 1865-1989 (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1980), 15-16.

  4. House Exec. Doc. No. 240, 41st Congress, 2nd session, (Serial 1425), p. 109. Quoted in Minnie Dubbs Millbrook, "An Old Trail Plowed Under-Hays to Dodge," Kansas Historical Quarterly 43 (Autumn 1977): 265-266.

  5. Lt. Col. John W. Davidson to Gen. Philip Sheridan, December 1867, "Letters Received, " Department of the Missouri, 1867, Military Records, National Archives (hereafter cited as Davidson to Sheridan).

  6. Taylor, First Mail West, 123, 130.

  7. John Murphy, "Reminiscences of the Washita Campaign and of the Darlington Indian Agency," Chronicles of Oklahoma 1 (June 1923) 261-62.

  8. George Armstrong Custer, My Life on the Plains (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962), 184.

  9. Olive K. Dixon, Life of "Billy" Dixon: Plainsman, Scout and Pioneer (Austin: state House Press, 1989), 56-59.

  10. Mahlon Bailey, "Medical Sketch of the Nineteenth Regiment of Kansas Cavalry Volunteers," Kansas Historical Quarterly 6 (November 1937): 378-80, 382.

  11. James H. Beach, "Old Fort Hays," Kansas Historical Collections, 1909-1910 11 (Topeka: State Printing Office, 1910): 573-74.

  12. Personal Memories of P. H. Sheridan, 2 vols. (New York: Charles L. Webster and Co., 1988), 2: 310-11.

  13. Robert M. Utley, ed., Life in Custer's Cavalry (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977), 210, 213-20.

  14. Stan Hoig, The Battle of the Washita: The Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign 1867-68 (Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1976), 181; Oliva, Fort Hays, 32-33.

  15. Custer, My Life on the Plains, 284, 376-77.

  16. Oliva, Fort Hays, 33.

  17. Ibid., 61.

  18. Ruts, the result of impacted soil caused by the heavy traffic of freight wagons, take on the appearance of swales. Such swales are of varying sizes ranging from a few to many yards in width. Because of the impaction, often vegetation of a different nature from that in the immediate environment grows in the ruts.

  19. Dixon, Life of "Billy" Dixon, 67-68.

  20. Wayne C. Lee and Howard C. Raynesford, Trails of the Smoky Hill; From Coronado to the Cow Towns (Caldwell, Id." Claxton Printers, 1980), 57.

  21. Ibid., 98.

  22. Ibid., 102.

  23. Davidson to Sheridan.

  24. Along frontier roads, enterprising entrepreneurs established small pockets of private enterprise called road ranches, trading ranches, or in some cases, whiskey ranches. Most commonly known simply as ranches, the little businesses catered to the needs of travelers, selling groceries, hardware, ammunition, and a constant supply of spirits. To augment their income, ranche proprietors traded livestock and supplied forage. Ranches located at crossings often operated a toll bridge.

  25. "Scout by William Holland of the Engineers Accompanying Co. F. Sixth Cavalry from Camp Hays to Fort Dodge," Military Records, 1972, National Archives (hereafter cited as Scout by Holland).

  26. Dixon, Life of "Billy" Dixon, 63-64.

  27. Cutdown refers to that area of the stream bank "cut down" by travelers to reduce the grade and thus allow easier access to and from the stream.

  28. Davidson to Sheridan; Scout by Holland; Robert W Baughman, Kansas Post Offices (Topeka: Kansas state Historical Society, 1961), 56, 223.

  29. Rush County Book Committee, Rush County Kansas: A Century in Stories and Pictures (LaCrosse, Ks.: Rush County Historical Society, 1976), 197-98.

  30. Hays City Sentinel, February 2, March 30, 1877.

  31. Rush County Kansas, 197-98.

  32. Davidson to Sheridan.

  33. Leo E. Oliva, Soldiers on the Santa Fe Trail (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 190.

  34. Corduroy refers to logs being placed in a transverse pattern to form the bridge, thus producing a ribbed effect. Holland mentions corduroy bridges also at the Pawnee and Buckner Crossing.

  35. Scout by Holland; Rush County Kansas, x, 109; Dixon, Life of "Billy" Dixon, 69; Kate Warner Krumrey, Saga of Sawlog (Denver: Big Mountain Press, 1965), 24.

  36. A. T. Andreas, History of the State of Kansas 2 vols. (Chicago: A. T. Andreas, 1883), 2:1586.

  37. Rush County Kansas, 109; Dixon, Life of "Billy" Dixon, 69.

  38. Baughman, Kansas Post Offices, 2,223, Andreas, History of the State of Kansas, 1586, Rush County Kansas, 112.

  39. "Records of the Office of the Chief Engineers," National Archives, part of Map 140. Quoted in Millbrook, "An Old Trail Plowed Under," 266 (Hereafter Cited as Records of the Chief Engineers); Davidson to Sheridan.

  40. "Letters Received by the Office of Adjutant General, 1867," roll 562, microcopy 619, National Archives.

  41. Virginia Pierce Hicks, "Notes on the Early History of the County," Kansas Historical Quarterly 7 (February 1938): 55, Davidson to Sheridan.

  42. Federal Census, 1870, Ness County, Kansas, p. 1.

  43. Dixon, Life of "Billy" Dixon, 70.

  44. Taylor, First Mail West, 130-32, 147; Margaret Long, The Santa Fe Trail: Following the Old Historic Pioneer Trails on the Modern Highways (Denver, Colo.: W. H. Kistler Stationary Co., 1954), 190.

  45. Strate, Sentinel to the Cimarron, 84.

  46. Hicks, "Notes on the Early History of the County," 55; Baughman, Kansas Post Offices, 70, 194; Jennie Rose O'Loughlin, "Early Lakin," Kansas Historical Quarterly 7 (February 1938): 62.

  47. Arlene Notestine Todd and Jean Bindley Thompson, History of Browns Grove and Burdett Kansas, 1876-1976 (Burdett: Burdett Community Development Corporation, N.D.), 24.

  48. W. C. Simons, "An Address Made Before the Old Settlers' Association of Lawrence, Kansas, Sept. 15, 1924," Kansas Historical Collections, 1923-1925," (Topeka: Kansas State Printing Plant, 1925), 520-21.

  49. Millbrook, "An Old Trail Plowed Under," 278.

  50. Portrait and Biographical Album of Washington, Clay and Riley Counties, Kansas (Chicago: Chapman Bros., 1890), 269

  51. Capt. Joseph Kerin to Post Adjutant, Fort Dodge, Kansas, July 29, 1874, Reports and Journals of Scouts and Marches, 1873-1879, Records of the War Department, U. S. Army Commands, Record Group 98, National Archives, Washington, D. C. (microfilm, Kansas State Historical Society).

  52. Baughman, Kansas Post Offices, 60, 190: Todd and Thompson, History of Browns Grove, 25.

  53. Simons, "An Address Made Before the Old Settlers' Association," 521.

  54. Margaret Evans Caldwell, "The Mudge Ranch," Kansas Historical Quarterly 24 (autumn 1958): 294; Buckner Independent, Jetmore, August 12, 1880.

  55. Book B1, Township 21, Register of Deeds, Hodgeman County Courthouse, Jetmore, Kansas.

  56. Todd and Thompson, History of Browns Grove, 25.

  57. Simons, "An Address Made Before the Old Settlers' Association," 521.

  58. Roger Gore, "Lime Stone Kiln," (unpublished paper, author's private collection, 1986).

  59. Records of the Chief Engineers; Davidson to Sheridan.

  60. George A. Armes, Ups and Downs of an Army Officer (Washington, D. C.: George A Armes, 1900), 297.

  61. Scout by Holland.

  62. Maj. Geo. Gibson to Assist. Adjutant General Headquarters, Department of the Missouri, September 23, 1869, Letters Sent, Fort Hays, Kansas, National Archives, Washington, D. C. (microfilm, Kansas State Historical Society).

  63. Scout By Holland.

  64. Records of the Chief Engineers.

  65. R. M. Wright, "Personal Reminiscences of Frontier Life in Southwest Kansas," Kansas Historical Collections, 1901-1902 7 (Topeka: State Printer, 1902), 64.

  66. Davidson to Sheridan.

  67. David L. Spotts, Campaigning With Custer and the Nineteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry on the Washita Campaign, 1868-69 (Los Angels: Wetzel Publishing Co., 1928), 178.

  68. Krumrey, Saga of Sawlog, 25.

  69. Strate, Sentinel to the Cimarron, 113-14.
    Used With Permission of the Author:
    David Clapsaddle

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